Equilibria, nonequilibria, and natural waters / Ricardo M. Pytkowicz
- Pytkowicz, Ricardo M. (Ricardo Marcos), 1929-
- New York : Wiley, 1983-
- Physical Description:
- 2 v. : ill. ; c28 cm.
- Vol. 1. A CHEMICAL REVIEW AND THE EARTH: Definitions illustrated by our planet -- Contents of natural waters -- Concentration units and conversion equations -- Equilibrium and steady-state concepts -- Activity and activity coefficients: a first visit -- Periodic table and electronic structure -- The structure of water -- Types of equilibria -- A clarifying note -- GEOCHEMISTRY: Development of our understanding, cycles, and the history of the oceans -- Minerals, including clays, rocks, and geologic time -- Examples of general cycles and reverse weathering -- The hypothesis of a quasiinvariant ocean -- Theory of reservoir transfers and cycles -- AN OCEANIC OVERVIEW: A geographical summary -- Water motions -- Distribution of temperature, salinity, and density: water transport -- Energy budget of the earth -- Life at sea -- The ocean bottom -- Composition of seawater, conservative properties, chlorinity, and salinity -- Modeling of chemical distributions in the oceans -- Lakes -- River inputs, relaxation times, and oceanic contents -- THERMODYNAMICS FOR EARTH SCIENTISTS: Concepts -- First law, internal energy, and enthalpy -- Second law, entropy, and free energy -- Second law of thermodynamics and free energy -- Free energy equilibrium and the oceans -- Chemical thermodynamics, partial molal quantities, and multicomponent systems -- Activities -- Equilibrium and chemical reactions -- The physicochemical properties of seawater -- Statistical thermodynamics of solutions -- Irreversible thermodynamics -- ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS: An overview and the usefulness of activity coefficients -- Types of electrolytes -- Conventions for activity coefficients of electrolytes -- Debye-Huckel and related equations -- Hydration -- Lattice model -- Activity coefficients of single ions -- Thermodynamics of electrolyte solutions -- Mean activity coefficients of electrolytes -- Method of the canonical ensemble -- A word on partial molal volumes in seawater -- Intercomparisons.
Vol. 2. PROPERTIES OF ACIDS AND THE CO2 SYSTEM IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS: Chemistry of carbon and carbon dioxide -- Acids and bases -- Carbonic acid -- Solubility of CO2 -- Thermodynamic dissociation constants of carbonic acid -- Types of dissociation constants -- Key reactions and equations of the CO2 system -- Speciation of CO2 in aqueous solutions -- CARBONIC ACID IN THE OCEANS: Basic equations and their properties -- Practical equations -- Speciation in the CO2 system -- The pH and the titration alkalinity in practice -- Further notes on the speciation -- Determinations of the apparent dissociation constants -- Distribution of CO2 species in the oceans -- pH buffering -- Buffer factor and fossil fuel -- SOLID-SOLUTION INTERACTIONS: Types of crystallization -- Nucleation -- Growth -- KINETICS AND CRYSTAL FORMS OF CARBONATES IN SOLUTION: Factors that control crystallization and solution -- Calcium carbonate in distilled water -- Kinetics of CaxMg1-xC03-water interactions in the presence or absence of additional solutes -- CaxMg1-xC03 in seawater and in some related salt solutions -- Summary of CaxMg1-xC03 kinetics and multistate equilibria in seawater -- SOLUBILITIES OF CARBONATES AND RELATED PROCESSES: Crystal systems and compositions of calcium carbonates -- Solubilities, systems, and degrees of freedom -- Control of solid phases -- Coatings -- Triangular and other diagrams -- Aragonite formation, calcite and diagenesis, cementation and dolomitization -- Measures of the solubility and degrees of saturation -- Values of the thermodynamic solubility products -- Stoichiometric solubility products in salt solutions -- Solubilities and degrees of saturation of calcium carbonates in seawater -- Solubilities of other electrolytes -- METAL COMPLEXES: Types of bonds -- Complexes -- Speciation -- Electronegativity, ionic potential, and other definitions -- Classes of metals and their solution properties -- Metal organic complexes -- Trace metals in natural waters with emphasis on the oceans -- METALS: REDOX REACTIONS AND GEOCHEMISTRY: Concepts -- Reference electrodes -- The Eh and the pe -- Oxidation intensity and capacity -- Eh-pH and pe-pH diagrams and calculations -- GEOCHEMISTRY OF AQUATIC ELECTROLYTES: Further thoughts on residence times and reactivities -- Geochemical properties -- Whitfield correlations -- Further thoughts by the author -- Weathering, river input, and estuaries -- Estuaries -- Oceanic processes -- Removal from the oceans: general considerations -- GASES: Solubilities of gases -- Kinetics of gas exchange -- Chemical properties and geochemical behavior -- Further notes on gases in nature -- NATURAL SOLUTIONS: AN OVERVIEW: Phases, systems, and regions -- States -- General states in geochemical cycles -- Specific types of equilibria.
- "A Wiley-Interscience publication."
- Bibliography Note:
- Bibliography: v. 1, p. 341-344.
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