Treatment for stimulant use disorders [electronic resource] / Richard A. Rawson
- Rockville, MD : U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, 
- Physical Description:
- 226 p. : ill
- Additional Creators:
- Rawson, Richard A. and United States. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. o92028637
- Treatment improvement protocol (TIP) series ; 33 and DHHS publication ; no. (SMA) 99-3296
- Restrictions on Access:
- License restrictions may limit access.
- EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS. Over the last 20 years, the use of stimulants has risen to national and international prominence. Stimulant use and its consequences have brought havoc to many communities across the United States and have prompted strong responses from Federal, State, and local governments and organizations. For example, the relatively minor problems of cocaine use in the 1960s and 1970s have grown to become major medical, legislative, and law enforcement issues in the 1990s. The devastation wrought by the crack cocaine epidemic is familiar to most Americans. Similarly, the use and abuse of another stimulant, methamphetamine (MA), have risen dramatically in recent years. Widespread use and abuse of MA have led to a greater awareness of the problem and have inspired policymakers, legal officials, and service providers to focus increased efforts toward the personal and societal effects of this drug. Concerns that MA abuse may result in another epidemic led to passage of the Comprehensive Methamphetamine Control Act of 1996. The explosive growth of stimulant use triggered a flurry of research. The results are tremendous advances in fundamental knowledge of stimulant use disorders and on the basic function of the brain and addictive disorders in general. Yet today, there are few reports that describe either the fundamentals of stimulant use disorder treatment or the success of various treatment interventions. This Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) describes basic knowledge about the nature and treatment of stimulant use disorders. More specifically, it reviews what is currently known about treating the medical, psychiatric, and substance abuse/dependence problems associated with the use of two high-profile stimulants: cocaine and MA. The scientifically based information in this TIP is presented in a manner that makes it available and relevant for clinicians and other "front line" substance use disorder treatment providers. It offers recommendations on treatment approaches, recommendations to maximize treatment engagement, strategies for planning and initiating treatment, and strategies for initiating and maintaining abstinence. Also included are recommendations for the medical management of stimulant users and recommendations regarding special groups and settings. The Consensus Panel that developed this TIP tried to emphasize those treatment techniques and principles that have been established with empirical support. However, because the "science" of treating stimulant use disorders is barely a decade old, the Panel also reviewed and synthesized a set of techniques and principles developed and supported by leading addiction specialists, but with less empirical support. This document delineates those treatment suggestions and recommendations that are empirically supported and those that are currently based on consensus opinion. The purpose of this TIP is to advance the understanding of treating the substance use disorders associated with the abuse of cocaine and MA. The Consensus Panel's recommendations summarized below are based on both researched and clinical experience. Those supported by scientific evidence are followed by (1); clinically based recommendations are marked (2). Citations to the former are referenced in the body of this document, where the guidelines are presented in full detail. To avoid sexism and awkward sentence construction, the TIP alternates between "he" and "she" in generic examples. For purposes of this TIP, the substances included in the category of "stimulants" include the derivatives of the coca plant (cocaine hydrochloride and its freebase form, "crack") and the synthetically produced amphetamines, with a primary emphasis on illicitly produced MA (and its smokable form, "ice"). Certainly there are other stimulants that are more widely used (e.g., caffeine) or that produce major health problems (e.g., nicotine); however, an extensive discussion of issues associated with these substances is beyond the scope of this document.
- "PHS CONTRACT NO. ADM 270-95-0013."
- Bibliography Note:
- Includes bibliographical references.
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