# Thermal stresses and temperature control of mass concrete / Zhu Bofang, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research and Chinese Academy of Engineering

- Author:
- Bofang, Zhu
- Published:
- Kidlington, Oxford : Butterworth-Heinemann, ©2014.
- Physical Description:
- 1 online resource
- Access Online:
- ezaccess.libraries.psu.edu

- Contents:
- Machine generated contents note: 1.Introduction -- 1.1.The Significance of Thermal Stress in Mass Concrete -- 1.2.The Features of Thermal Stresses in Concrete Structures -- 1.3.The Variation of Temperature and Thermal Stress of Mass Concrete with Time -- 1.3.1.The Variation of Temperature of Mass Concrete with Time -- 1.3.2.The Variation of the Thermal Stress in Mass Concrete -- 1.4.Kinds of Thermal Stress -- 1.5.Analysis of Thermal Stress of a Massive Concrete Structure -- 1.6.Thermal Stress---The Cause of Crack -- 1.7.Technical Measures for Control of Thermal Stress and Prevention of Cracking -- 1.8.The Experience of the Temperature Control and Crack Prevention of Mass Concrete in the Last 30 Years -- 2.Conduction of Heat in Mass Concrete, Boundary Conditions, and Methods of Solution -- 2.1.Differential Equation of Heat Conduction, Initial and Boundary Conditions -- 2.1.1.Differential Equation of Heat Conduction -- 2.1.2.Initial Condition -- 2.1.3.Boundary Conditions -- 2.1.4.The Approximate Treatment of the Third Kind of Boundary Condition -- 2.2.Surface Conductance and Computation of Superficial Thermal Insulation -- 2.2.1.Surface Conductance β -- 2.2.2.Computation of the Effect of Superficial Thermal Insulation -- 2.3.Air Temperature -- 2.3.1.Annual Variation of Air Temperature -- 2.3.2.Cold Wave -- 2.4.Temperature Increments due to Sunshine -- 2.4.1.Sun Radiation on Horizontal Surface -- 2.4.2.Temperature Increment of the Dam Surface due to Sunshine -- 2.4.3.Influence of Sunshine on the Temperature of Horizontal Lift Surface -- 2.5.Estimation of Water Temperature in Reservoir -- 2.6.Numerical Computation of Water Temperature in Reservoir -- 2.7.Thermal Properties of Concrete -- 2.8.Heat of Hydration of Cement and the Adiabatic Temperature Rise of Concrete -- 2.8.1.Heat of Hydration of Cement -- 2.8.2.Adiabatic Temperature Rise of Concrete -- 2.9.Temperature on the Surface of Dam -- 2.10.The Autogenous Deformation of Concrete -- 2.11.Semi-Mature Age of Concrete -- 2.11.1.Method for Determining the Semi-Mature Age of Concrete -- 2.11.2.Formulas for Computing the Semi-Mature Age of Concrete -- 2.11.3.Meaning of Semi-Mature Age in Engineering -- 2.11.4.Example of the Influence of Semi-Mature Age -- 2.11.5.Measures for Adjusting the Semi-Mature Ages of Concrete -- 2.11.6.Conclusions -- 2.12.Deformation of Concrete Caused by Change of Humidity -- 2.13.Coefficients of Thermal Expansion of Concrete -- 2.14.Solution of Temperature Field by Finite Difference Method -- 3.Temperature Field in the Operation Period of a Massive Concrete Structure -- 3.1.Depth of Influence of the Variation of Exterior Temperature in the Operation Period -- 3.1.1.Depth of Influence of Variation of Water Temperature -- 3.1.2.Depth of Influence of Variation of Air Temperature -- 3.2.Variation of Concrete Temperature from the Beginning of Construction to the Period of Operation -- 3.3.Steady Temperature Field of Concrete Dams -- 4.Placing Temperature and Temperature Rise of Concrete Lift due to Hydration Heat of Cement -- 4.1.Mixing Temperature of Concrete---T0 -- 4.2.The Forming Temperature of Concrete T1 -- 4.3.Placing Temperature of Concrete TP -- 4.4.Theoretical Solution of Temperature Rise of Concrete Lift due to Hydration Heat of Cement -- 4.4.1.Temperature Rise due to Hydration Heat in Concrete Lift with First Kind of Boundary Condition -- 4.4.2.Temperature Rise due to Hydration Heat in Concrete Lift with Third Kind of Boundary Condition -- 4.4.3.Temperature Rise due to Hydration Heat with Adiabatic Temperature Rise Expressed by Compound Exponentials -- 4.5.Theoretical Solution of Temperature Field of Concrete Lift due to Simultaneous Action of Natural Cooling and Pipe Cooling -- 4.6.Temperature Field in Concrete Lift Computed by Finite Difference Method -- 4.6.1.Temperature Field in Concrete Lift due to Hydration Heat Computed by Finite Difference Method -- 4.6.2.Temperature Field due to Hydration Heat in Concrete Lift with Cooling Pipe Computed by Finite Difference Method -- 4.7.Practical Method for Computing Temperature Field in Construction Period of Concrete Dams -- 4.7.1.Practical Method for Computing Temperature Field in Concrete Lift without Pipe Cooling -- 4.7.2.Influence of the Placing Temperature Tp of the New Concrete -- 4.7.3.Practical Method for Computing Temperature in Concrete Lift without Pipe Cooling -- 4.7.4.Practical Method for Computing Temperature Field in Concrete Lift with Pipe Cooling -- 4.7.5.Practical Treatment of Boundary Condition on the Top Surface -- 5.Natural Cooling of Mass Concrete -- 5.1.Cooling of Semi-Infinite Solid, Third Kind of Boundary Condition -- 5.2.Cooling of a Slab with First Kind of Boundary Condition -- 5.3.Cooling of a Slab with Third Kind of Boundary Condition -- 5.4.Temperature in a Concrete Slab with Harmonic Surface Temperature -- 5.4.1.Concrete Slab with Zero Initial Temperature and Harmonic Surface Temperature -- 5.4.2.Concrete Slab, Initial Temperature T0, Harmonic Surface Temperature -- 5.5.Temperature in a Slab with Arbitrary External Temperature -- 5.6.Cooling of Mass Concrete in Two and Three Directions, Theorem of Product -- 6.Stress---Strain Relation and Analysis of Viscoelastic Stress of Mass Concrete -- 6.1.Stress---Strain Relation of Concrete -- 6.1.1.Strain of Concrete due to Constant Stress -- 6.1.2.Strain of Concrete due to Variable Stress -- 6.1.3.Modulus of Elasticity and Creep of Concrete -- 6.1.4.Lateral Strain and Poisson's Ratio of Concrete -- 6.2.Stress Relaxation of Concrete -- 6.2.1.Stress Relaxation of Concrete Subjected to Constant Strain -- 6.2.2.Method for Computing the Relaxation Coefficient from Creep of Concrete -- 6.2.3.Formulas for Relaxation Coefficient -- 6.3.Modulus of Elasticity, Unit Creep, and Relaxation Coefficient of Concrete for Preliminary Analysis -- 6.4.Two Theorems About the Influence of Creep on the Stresses and Deformations of Concrete Structures -- 6.5.Classification of Massive Concrete Structures and Method of Analysis -- 6.6.Method of Equivalent Modulus for Analyzing Stresses in Matured Concrete due to Harmonic Variation of Temperature -- 7.Thermal Stresses in Fixed Slab or Free Slab -- 7.1.Thermal Stresses in Fixed Slab -- 7.1.1.Computation of the Temperature Field -- 7.1.2.The Elastic Thermal Stress -- 7.1.3.The Viscoelastic Thermal Stresses -- 7.1.4.The Thermal Stresses in Fixed Slab Due to Hydration Heat of Cement -- 7.2.Method for Computing Thermal Stresses in a Free Slab -- 7.2.1.Elastic Thermal Stress in a Free Slab When the Modulus of Elasticity is Constant -- 7.2.2.Viscoelastic Thermal Stress in a Free Slab Considering the Influence of Age -- 7.3.Thermal Stresses in Free Concrete Slab due to Hydration Heat of Cement -- 7.4.Thermal Stresses in Free Slabs with Periodically Varying Surface Temperature -- 7.4.1.The Temperature Field -- 7.4.2.The Viscoelastic Thermal Stresses -- 7.5.Thermal Stress in Free Slab with Third Kind of Boundary Condition and Periodically Varying Air Temperature -- 7.6.Thermal Stresses Due to Removing Forms -- 7.6.1.Stresses Due to Removing Forms of Infinite Slab -- 7.6.2.Stresses Due to Removing Forms of Semi-infinite Solid -- 7.6.3.Computing Thermal Stress Due to Removing Forms by Finite Element Method -- 8.Thermal Stresses in Concrete Beams on Elastic Foundation -- 8.1.Self-Thermal Stress in a Beam -- 8.2.Restraint Thermal Stress of Beam on Foundation of Semi-infinite Plane -- 8.2.1.Nonhomogeneous Beam on Elastic Foundation -- 8.2.2.Homogeneous Beam on Elastic Foundation -- 8.3.Restraint Stresses of Beam on Old Concrete Block -- 8.4.Approximate Analysis of Thermal Stresses in Thin Beam on Half-Plane Foundation -- 8.5.Thermal Stress on the Lateral Surface of Beam on Elastic Foundation -- 8.6.Thermal Stresses in Beam on Winkler Foundation -- 8.6.1.Restraint Stress of Beam in Pure Tension -- 8.6.2.Restraint Stress of Beam in Pure Bending -- 8.6.3.Restraint Stresses of Beam in Bending and Tension -- 8.6.4.Coefficients of Resistance of Foundation -- 8.6.5.Approximate Method for Beam on Winkler Foundation -- 8.6.6.Analysis of Effect of Restraint of Soil Foundation -- 8.7.Thermal Stresses in Beams on Elastic Foundation When Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete Varying with Time -- 9.Finite Element Method for Computing Temperature Field -- 9.1.Variational Principle for the Problem of Heat Conduction -- 9.1.1.Euler's Equation -- 9.1.2.Variational Principle of Problem of Heat Conduction -- 9.2.Discretization of Continuous Body -- 9.3.Fundamental Equations for Solving Unsteady Temperature Field by FEM -- 9.4.Two-Dimensional Unsteady Temperature Field, Triangular Elements -- 9.5.Isoparametric Elements -- 9.5.1.Two-Dimensional Isoparametric Elements -- 9.5.2.Three-Dimensional Isoparametric Elements -- 9.6.Computing Examples of Unsteady Temperature Field -- 10.Finite Element Method for Computing the Viscoelastic Thermal Stresses of Massive Concrete Structures -- 10.1.FEM for Computing Elastic Thermal Stresses -- 10.1.1.Displacements of an Element -- 10.1.2.Strains of an Element -- 10.1.3.Stresses of an Element -- 10.1.4.Nodal Forces and Stiffness Matrix of an Element -- 10.1.5.Nodal Loads -- 10.1.6.Equilibrium Equation of Nodes and the Global Stiffness Matrix -- 10.1.7.Collection of FEM Formulas -- 10.2.Implicit Method for Solving Viscoelastic Stress---Strain Equation of Mass Concrete -- 10.2.1.Computing Increment of Strain -- 10.2.2.Relationship Between Stress Increment and Strain Increment for One-Directional Stress -- 10.2.3.Relationship Between Stress Increment and Strain Increment for Complex Stress State -- 10.3.Viscoelastic Thermal Stress Analysis of Concrete Structure -- 10.4.Compound Element -- 10.5.Method of Different Time Increments in Different Regions -- 11.Stresses due to Change of Air Temperature and Superficial Thermal Insulation -- 11.1.Superficial Thermal Stress due to Linear Variation of Air Temperature During Cold Wave --, Contents note continued: 11.2.Superficial Thermal Insulation, Harmonic Variation of Air Temperature, One-Dimensional Heat Flow -- 11.2.1.Superficial Thermal Insulation, Daily Variation of Air Temperature, One-Dimensional Heat Flow -- 11.2.2.Superficial Thermal Insulation for Cold Wave, One-Dimensional Heat Flow -- 11.2.3.Superficial Thermal Insulation, Temperature Drop in Winter, One-Dimensional Heat Row -- 11.3.Superficial Thermal Insulation, Harmonic Variation of Air Temperature, Two-Dimensional Heat Flow -- 11.3.1.Two-Dimensional Heat Flow, Thermal Insulation for Daily Variation of Air Temperature -- 11.3.2.Two-Dimensional Heat Flow, Thermal Insulation for Cold Wave -- 11.3.3.Two-Dimensional Heat Flow, the Superficial Thermal Insulation During Winter -- 11.4.Thermal Stresses in Concrete Block During Winter and Supercritical Thermal Insulation -- 11.4.1.Superficial Thermal Stresses During Winter -- 11.4.2.Computation of Superficial Thermal Insulation -- 11.4.3.Determining the Thickness of Superficial Thermal Insulation Plate -- 11.5.Comprehensive Analysis of Effect of Superficial Thermal Insulation for Variation of Air Temperature -- 11.6.The Necessity of Long Time Thermal Insulation for Important Concrete Surface -- 11.7.Materials for Superficial Thermal Insulation -- 11.7.1.Foamed Polystyrene Plate -- 11.7.2.Foamed Polythene Wadded Quilt -- 11.7.3.Polyurethane Foamed Coating -- 11.7.4.Compound Permanent Insulation Plate -- 11.7.5.Permanent Thermal Insulation and Anti-Seepage Plate -- 11.7.6.Straw Bag -- 11.7.7.Sand Layer -- 11.7.8.Requirements of Thermal Insulation for Different Concrete Surfaces -- 12.Thermal Stresses in Massive Concrete Blocks -- 12.1.Thermal Stresses of Concrete Block on Elastic Foundation due to Uniform Cooling -- 12.1.1.Thermal Stresses of Block on Horizontal Foundation -- 12.1.2.Danger of Cracking of Thin Block with Long Time of Cooling -- 12.1.3.Concrete Block on Inclined Foundation -- 12.2.Influence Lines of Thermal Stress in Concrete Block -- 12.3.Influence of Height of Cooling Region on Thermal Stresses -- 12.3.1.Influence of Height of Cooling Region on Elastic Thermal Stresses -- 12.3.2.Influence of Height of Cooling Region on the Viscoelastic Thermal Stresses -- 12.4.Influence of Height of Cooling Region on Opening of Contraction Joints -- 12.5.Two Kinds of Temperature Difference Between Upper and Lower Parts of Block -- 12.6.Two Principles for Temperature Control and the Allowable Temperature Differences of Mass Concrete on Rock Foundation -- 12.6.1.Stresses due to Stepwise Temperature Difference -- 12.6.2.Positive Stepwise Temperature Difference and the First Principle About the Control of Temperature Difference of Concrete on Rock Foundation -- 12.6.3.Negative Stepwise Temperature Difference and the Second Principle About the Control of Temperature Difference of Concrete on Rock Foundation -- 12.6.4.Stresses due to Multi-Stepwise Temperature Difference -- 12.6.5.Viscoelastic Thermal Stresses Simulating Process of Construction of Multilayer Concrete Block on Rock Foundation -- 12.7.Approximate Formula for Thermal Stress in Concrete Block on Rock Foundation in Construction Period -- 12.8.Influence of Length of Concrete Block on the Thermal Stress -- 12.8.1.Influence of Length of Concrete Block on the Thermal Stress due to Temperature Difference Between the Upper and Lower Parts -- 12.8.2.Influence of Joint Spacing on the Thermal Stress due to Annual Variation of Temperature -- 12.9.Danger of Cracking due to Over-precooling of Concrete -- 12.10.Thermal Stresses in Concrete Blocks Standing Side by Side -- 12.11.Equivalent Temperature Rise due to Self-Weight of Concrete -- 13.Thermal Stresses in Concrete Gravity Dams -- 13.1.Thermal Stresses in Gravity Dams due to Restraint of Foundation -- 13.2.Influence of Longitudinal Joints on Thermal Stress in Gravity Dam -- 13.3.The Temperatures and Stresses in a Gravity Dam Without Longitudinal Joint -- 13.4.Gravity Dam with Longitudinal Crack -- 13.5.Deep Crack on the Upstream Face of Gravity Dam -- 13.6.Opening of Longitudinal Joint of Gravity Dam in the Period of Operation -- 13.7.Thermal Stresses of Gravity Dams in Severe Cold Region -- 13.7.1.Peculiarity of Thermal Stresses of Gravity Dam in Severe Cold Region -- 13.7.2.Horizontal Cracks and Upstream Face Cracks -- 13.7.3.Measures for Preventing Cracking of Gravity Dam in Severe Cold Region -- 13.8.Thermal Stresses due to Heightening of Gravity Dam -- 13.9.Technical Measures to Reduce the Thermal Stress due to Heightening of Gravity Dam -- 14.Thermal Stresses in Concrete Arch Dams -- 14.1.Introduction -- 14.1.1.Self-Thermal Stresses of Arch Dam -- 14.1.2.Three Characteristic Temperature Fields in Arch Dam -- 14.1.3.Temperature Loading on Arch Dams -- 14.2.Temperature Loading on Arch Dam for Constant Water Level -- 14.2.1.Formulas for Tm2 and Td2 -- 14.2.2.Physical Meaning of the Equivalent Linear Temperature -- 14.3.Temperature Loading on Arch Dam for Variable Water Level -- 14.3.1.Computation of Surface Temperature of Dam for Variable Water Level -- 14.3.2.Temperature Loading on Arch Dam for Variable Water Level -- 14.4.Temperature Loadings on Arch Dams in Cold Region with Superficial Thermal Insulation Layer -- 14.4.1.Tm1 and Td1 for the Annual Mean Temperature Field T1(x) -- 14.4.2.Exact Solution of Tm2 and Td2 for the Yearly Varying Temperature Field T2(x,T) -- 14.4.3.Approximate Solution of Tm2 and Td2 for the Yearly Varying Temperature Field T2(x,T) -- 14.5.Measures for Reducing Temperature Loadings of Arch Dam -- 14.5.1.Optimizing Grouting Temperature -- 14.5.2.Superficial Thermal Insulation -- 14.6.Temperature Control of RCC Arch Dams -- 14.6.1.RCC Arch Dams without Transverse Joint -- 14.6.2.RCC Arch Dam with Transverse Joints -- 14.7.Observed Thermal Stresses and Deformations of Arch Dams -- 15.Thermal Stresses in Docks, Locks, and Sluices -- 15.1.Self-Thermal Stresses in Walls of Docks and Piers of Sluices -- 15.2.Restraint Stress in the Wall of Dock -- 15.2.1.General Theory for the Restraint Stress in the Wall of Dock -- 15.2.2.Computation for Wide Bottom Plate -- 15.2.3.Computation for Bottom Plate with Moderate Width -- 15.3.Restraint Stress in the Piers of Sluices -- 15.4.Restraint Stress in the Wall of Dock or the Pier of Sluice on Narrow Bottom Plate -- 15.5.Simplified Computing Method -- 15.5.1.T Beam -- 15.5.2.Simplified Computation of Thermal Stresses in Dock -- 15.5.3.Simplified Method for Thermal Stresses in Sluices -- 15.5.4.Simplified Method for E(y, τ) Varying with Age τ -- 15.6.Thermal Stresses in a Sluice by FEM -- 15.6.1.Thermal Stress due to Hydration Heat of Cement in Construction Period -- 16.Simulation Analysis, Dynamic Temperature Control, Numerical Monitoring, and Model Test of Thermal Stresses in Massive Concrete Structures -- 16.1.Full Course Simulation Analysis of Concrete Dams -- 16.2.Dynamic Temperature Control and Decision Support System of Concrete Dam -- 16.3.Numerical Monitoring of Concrete Dams -- 16.3.1.The Drawbacks of Instrumental Monitoring -- 16.3.2.Numerical Monitoring -- 16.3.3.The Important Functions of Numerical Monitoring -- 16.4.Model Test of Temperature and Stress Fields of Massive Concrete Structures -- 17.Pipe Cooling of Mass Concrete -- 17.1.Introduction -- 17.2.Plane Temperature Field of Pipe Cooling in Late Stage -- 17.2.1.Plane Temperature Field of Concrete Cooled by Nonmetal Pipe in Late Stage -- 17.2.2.Plane Temperature Field of Concrete Cooled by Metal Pipe in Late Stage -- 17.3.Spatial Temperature Field of Pipe Cooling in Late Stage -- 17.3.1.Method of Solution of the Spatial Problem of Pipe Cooling -- 17.3.2.Spatial Cooling of Concrete by Metal Pipe in Late Stage -- 17.3.3.Spatial Cooling of Concrete by Nonmetal Pipe in Late Stage -- 17.4.Temperature Field of Pipe Cooling in Early Stage -- 17.4.1.Plane Problem of Pipe Cooling of Early Stage -- 17.4.2.Spatial Problem of Pipe Cooling of Late Stage -- 17.5.Practical Formulas for Pipe Cooling of Mass Concrete -- 17.5.1.Mean Temperature of Concrete Cylinder with Length L -- 17.5.2.Mean Temperature of the Cross Section of Concrete Cylinder -- 17.5.3.Time of Cooling -- 17.5.4.Formula for Water Temperature -- 17.6.Equivalent Equation of Heat Conduction Considering Effect of Pipe Cooling -- 17.6.1.Temperature Variation of Concrete with Insulated Surface and Cooling Pipe -- 17.6.2.Equivalent Equation of Heat Conduction Considering the Effect of Pipe Cooling -- 17.7.Theoretical Solution of the Elastocreeping Stresses Due to Pipe Cooling and Self-Restraint -- 17.7.1.The Elastic Thermal Stress Due to Self-Restraint -- 17.7.2.The Elastocreeping Thermal Stress Due to Self-Restraint -- 17.7.3.A Practical Formula for the Elastocreeping Thermal Stress Due to Self-Restraint -- 17.7.4.Reducing Thermal Stress by Multistage Cooling with Small Temperature Differences---Theoretical Solution -- 17.7.5.The Elastocreeping Self-Stress Due to Pipe Cooling and Hydration Heat of Cement -- 17.8.Numerical Analysis of Elastocreeping Self-Thermal Stress of Pipe Cooling -- 17.8.1.Computing Model -- 17.8.2.Elastocreeping Stresses in 60 Days Early Pipe Cooling -- 17.8.3.Elastocreeping Stresses in 20 Days Early Pipe Cooling -- 17.8.4.Elastocreeping Stresses in Late Pipe Cooling -- 17.8.5.New Method of Cooling---Multistep Early and Slow Cooling with Small Temperature Differences---Numerical Analysis -- 17.9.The FEM for Computing Temperatures and Stresses in Pipe Cooled Concrete -- 17.9.1.Pipe Cooling Temperature Field Solved Directly by FEM -- 17.9.2.Equivalent FEM for Computing the Temperatures and Stresses in Mass Concrete Block with Cooling Pipe -- 17.9.3.Comparison Between the Direct Method and the Equivalent Method for Pipe Cooling -- 17.10.Three Principles for Pipe Cooling -- 17.11.Research on the Pattern of Early Pipe Cooling -- 17.12.Research on the Pattern of the Medium and the Late Cooling -- 17.12.1.The Influence of Temperature Gradient on the Thermal Stress --, and Contents note continued: 17.12.2.The Influence of Pipe Spacing on the Thermal Stress -- 17.12.3.The Influence of the Number of Stages of Pipe Cooling -- 17.13.Strengthen Cooling by Close Polythene Pipe -- 17.13.1.Effect of Cooling by Close Pipe -- 17.13.2.Influence of Cooling of Pipe with Small Spacing on the Thermal Stress -- 17.13.3.The Principle for Control of Pipe Spacing and Temperature Difference T0 --- Tw -- 17.14.Advantages and Disadvantages of Pipe Cooling -- 17.15.Superficial Thermal Insulation of Mass Concrete During Pipe Cooling in Hot Seasons -- 18.Precooling and Surface Cooling of Mass Concrete -- 18.1.Introduction -- 18.2.Getting Aggregates from Underground Gallery -- 18.3.Mixing with Cooled Water and Ice -- 18.4.Precooling of Aggregate -- 18.4.1.Precooling of Aggregate by Water Cooling -- 18.4.2.Precooling of Aggregate by Air Cooling -- 18.4.3.Precooling of Aggregate by Mixed Type of Water Spraying and Air Cooling -- 18.4.4.Precooling of Aggregate by Secondary Air Cooling -- 18.5.Cooling by Spraying Fog or Flowing Water over Top of the Concrete Block -- 18.5.1.Spraying Fog over Top of the Concrete Block -- 18.5.2.Cooling by Flowing Water over Top of the Concrete Block -- 19.Construction of Dam by MgO Concrete -- 19.1.MgO Concrete -- 19.2.Six Peculiarities of MgO Concrete Dams -- 19.2.1.Difference Between Indoor and Outdoor Expansive Deformation -- 19.2.2.Time Difference -- 19.2.3.Regional Difference -- 19.2.4.Dam Type Difference -- 19.2.5.Two Kinds of Temperature Difference -- 19.2.6.Dilatation Source Difference -- 19.3.The Calculation Model of the Expansive Deformation of MgO Concrete -- 19.3.1.The Calculation Model of the Expansive Deformation for Test Indoors -- 19.3.2.The Calculation of the Expansive Deformation of MgO Concrete of Dam Body Outdoors -- 19.3.3.The Incremental Calculation of the Autogenous Volume Deformation -- 19.4.The Application of MgO Concrete in Gravity Dams -- 19.4.1.Conventional Concrete Gravity Dams -- 19.5.The Application of MgO Concrete in Arch Dams -- 19.5.1.Arch Dams with Contraction Joints -- 19.5.2.Arch Dams without Contraction Joints, Time Difference -- 19.5.3.Example of Application of MgO Concrete, Sanjianghe MgO Concrete Arch Dam -- 20.Construction of Mass Concrete in Winter -- 20.1.Problems and Design Principles of Construction of Mass Concrete in Winter -- 20.1.1.Problems of Construction of Mass Concrete in Winter -- 20.1.2.Design Principles of Construction of Mass Concrete in Winter -- 20.2.Technical Measures of Construction of Mass Concrete in Winter -- 20.3.Calculation of Thermal Insulation of Mass Concrete Construction in Winter -- 21.Temperature Control of Concrete Dam in Cold Region -- 21.1.Climate Features of the Cold Region -- 21.2.Difficulties of Temperature Control of Concrete Dam in Cold Region -- 21.3.Temperature Control of Concrete Dam in Cold Region -- 22.Allowable Temperature Difference, Cooling Capacity, Inspection and Treatment of Cracks, and Administration of Temperature Control -- 22.1.Computational Formula for Concrete Crack Resistance -- 22.2.Laboratory Test of Crack Resistance of Concrete -- 22.3.The Difference of Tensile Properties Between Prototype Concrete and Laboratory Testing Sample -- 22.3.1.Coefficient b1 for Size and Screening Effect -- 22.3.2.Time Effect Coefficient b2 -- 22.4.Reasonable Value for the Safety Factor of Crack Resistance -- 22.4.1.Theoretical Safety Factor of Crack Resistance -- 22.4.2.Practical Safety Factor of Concrete Crack Resistance -- 22.4.3.Safety Factors for Crack Resistance in Preliminary Design -- 22.5.Calculation of Allowable Temperature Difference and Ability of Superficial Thermal Insulation of Mass Concrete -- 22.5.1.General Formula for Allowable Temperature Difference and Superficial Thermal Insulation -- 22.5.2.Approximate Calculation of Allowable Temperature Difference and Insulation Ability -- 22.6.The Allowable Temperature Difference Adopted by Practical Concrete Dam Design Specifications -- 22.6.1.Regulations of Allowable Temperature Difference in Chinese Concrete Dam Design Specifications -- 22.6.2.The Requirement of Temperature Control in "Design Guideline of Roller Compacted Concrete Dam" of China -- 22.6.3.Temperature Control Regulation of Concrete Dam by U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and U.S. Army Corps of Engineering -- 22.6.4.Temperature Control Requirements of Concrete Dam of Russia -- 22.7.Practical Examples for Temperature Control of Concrete Dams -- 22.7.1.Laxiwa Arch Dam -- 22.7.2.Toktogulskaya Gravity Dam -- 22.7.3.Dworshak Gravity Dam -- 22.8.Cooling Capacity -- 22.8.1.Calculation for the Total Cooling Capacity -- 22.8.2.Cooling Load for Different Cases -- 22.9.Inspection and Classification of Concrete Cracks -- 22.9.1.Inspection of Concrete Cracks -- 22.9.2.Classification of Cracks in Mass Concrete -- 22.10.Treatment of Concrete Cracks -- 22.10.1.Harm of Cracks -- 22.10.2.Environmental Condition of Cracks -- 22.10.3.Principle of Crack Treatment -- 22.10.4.Method of Crack Treatment -- 23.Key Principles for Temperature Control of Mass Concrete -- 23.1.Selection of the Form of Structure -- 23.2.Optimization of Concrete Material -- 23.3.Calculation of Crack Resistance of Concrete -- 23.4.Control of Temperature Difference of Mass Concrete -- 23.4.1.Temperature Difference Above Dam Foundation and Temperature Difference Between Upper and Lower Parts of Dam Block -- 23.4.2.Surface---Interior Temperature Difference -- 23.4.3.Maximum Temperature of Concrete -- 23.5.Analysis of Thermal Stress of Mass Concrete -- 23.5.1.Estimation of Thermal Stress -- 23.5.2.Primary Calculation of the Temperature Stress -- 23.5.3.Detailed Calculation of Thermal Stress -- 23.5.4.Whole Process Simulation Calculation -- 23.6.Dividing the Dam into Blocks -- 23.7.Temperature Control of Gravity Dam -- 23.8.Temperature Control of Arch Dam -- 23.9.Control of Placing Temperature of Mass Concrete -- 23.10.Pipe Cooling of Mass Concrete -- 23.11.Surface Thermal Insulation -- 23.12.Winter Construction -- 23.13.Conclusion.
- Summary:
- Methods of controlling mass concrete temperatures range from relatively simple to complex and from inexpensive too costly. Depending on a particular situation, it may be advantageous to use one or more methods over others. Based on the author's 50 years of personal experience in designing mass concrete structures, Thermal Stresses and Temperature Control of Mass Concrete provides a clear and rigorous guide to selecting the right techniques to meet project-specific and financial needs. New techniques such as long time superficial thermal insulation, comprehensive temperature control, and MgO self-expansive concrete are introduced. Methods for calculating the temperature field and thermal stresses in dams, docks, tunnels, and concrete blocks and beams on elastic foundations Thermal stress computations that take into account the influences of all factors and simulate the process of construction. Analytical methods for determining thermal and mechanical properties of concrete. Formulas for determining water temperature in reservoirs and temperature loading of arched dams. New numerical monitoring methods for mass and semi-mature aged concrete.
- Subject(s):
- ISBN:
- 9780124077232 (electronic bk.) and 0124077234 (electronic bk.)
- Note:
- AVAILABLE ONLINE TO AUTHORIZED PSU USERS.
- Bibliography Note:
- Includes bibliographical references and index.

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