A scientific approach to writing for engineers and scientists / Robert E. Berger
- Berger, Robert E.
- Hoboken, New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2014.
- Physical Description:
- 1 online resource
- Machine generated contents note: 1.Introduction to the Approach -- 1.1.An Objective Approach to Writing -- 1.2.Reasons and Principles for Good Writing -- 1.3.The Upside-Down Approach -- 1.4.How This Book Can Be Used -- pt. I SENTENCES -- 2.Qualifiers Used in Sentences -- 2.1.A Simple Sentence -- 2.2.Cores and Qualifiers -- 2.3.Minor Qualifiers -- Adjectives -- Prepositional Phrases -- 2.4.Three Factors to Consider When Adding a Qualifier to a Sentence -- The Need for Punctuation -- The Position of the Qualifier in a Sentence: Sentence Forms 1, 2, and 3 -- The Type of Qualifier -- 3.Subordinate Clauses Used as Qualifiers -- 3.1.That and which Clauses -- Positions of that and which Clauses With Respect to the Core of a Sentence -- Punctuation of that and which Clauses -- Positions of that and which Clauses With Respect to Their Antecedents -- 3.2.Adverb Clauses (and Adjective Clauses) -- Subordinate conjunctions -- Position and Punctuation of Adverb (and Adjective) Clauses -- 3.3.General Rule for Punctuating Subordinate Clauses -- 4.Explanatory Phrases, Participle Phrases, and Major Prepositional Phrases -- 4.1.Explanatory Phrases -- Position and Punctuation of Explanatory Phrases -- Special Case: such as Phrases -- 4.2.Participle Phrases -- Position and Punctuation of Participle Phrases -- Participle Phrases Introduced by Adverbs -- Special Case: Participle Phrases Beginning With the Participle Including -- 4.3.Major Prepositional Phrases -- Common Prepositional Phrases and Major Prepositional Phrases -- Position and Punctuation of Major Prepositional Phrases -- 5.Infinitive Phrases, and the General Rule for Punctuating Qualifiers -- 5.1.Infinitive Phrases -- Introductory Infinitive Phrases -- Punctuation of Infinitive Phrases That Qualify Nouns -- Punctuation of Infinitive Phrases That Qualify Nearby Verbs -- Punctuation of Infinitive Phrases That Qualify Remote Verbs or the Entire Core -- Close Calls -- 5.2.General Rule for Punctuating Qualifiers -- 6.Sentences with Two Qualifiers -- 6.1.Two Separated Qualifiers -- Sentence Form 4 Qualifiers Before and After the Core -- Sentence Form 5 Qualifiers Before and Within the Core -- Sentence Form 6 Qualifiers Within and After the Core -- Sentence Form 7 Both Qualifiers Within the Core -- 6.2.Two Consecutive Qualifiers -- Sentence Form 8 Both Qualifiers Before the Core -- Sentence Form 9 Both Qualifiers After the Core -- Sentence Form 10 Both Qualifiers Within the Core -- 6.3.Nested Qualifiers -- Case 1 Restrictive Qualifier Nested Within a Restrictive Qualifier -- Case 2 Nonrestrictive Qualifier Nested Within a Restrictive Qualifier -- Case 3 Restrictive Qualifier Nested Within a Nonrestrictive Qualifier -- Case 4 Nonrestrictive Qualifier Nested Within Another Nonrestrictive Qualifier -- 7.Higher Orders of Punctuation -- 7.1.Hierarchy of Punctuation: Commas, Dashes, and Parentheses -- 7.2.Nonrestrictive Qualifiers Containing Commas -- 7.3.Dashes and Parentheses as First-Order Punctuation -- Dash(es) Preferred -- Parentheses Preferred -- Close Calls -- 8.Strategies to Improve Sentences with Qualifiers -- 8.1.General Rule for Multiple Qualifiers -- 8.2.Exceptions to the General Rule for Multiple Qualifiers -- Exception 1 (Relatively Short) Embedded Restrictive Qualifiers -- Exception 2 (Relatively Short) Introductory Qualifiers -- Exception 3 One or More Qualifiers Enclosed by Parentheses -- 8.3.The General Rule Applied to Long Sentences with Multiple Qualifiers -- 8.4.Situations for Which Sentences Should Be Combined -- 8.5.Arrangement of Major and Minor Qualifiers for Enhanced Communication -- To Ensure That Qualifiers Are in Close Proximity to Their Antecedents -- To Achieve Closer Subject/Verb Proximity -- To Correct "Wayward" Prepositional Phrases -- pt. II LISTS -- 9.Two-Item Lists -- 9.1.Balanced Two-Item Lists -- Balanced Two-Item Lists Using and or or -- Balanced Two-Item Lists Using Pairs of Conjunctions -- 9.2.Unbalanced Two-Item Lists -- Unbalanced Two-Item Lists Where One Item Itself Contains Multiple Items -- Unbalanced Two-Item Lists That Contain a Verb Form -- Unbalanced Two-Item Lists Caused by a Nonrestrictive Item -- 9.3.Compound Sentences -- Examples of Simple Compound Sentences -- Qualifiers Used in Compound Sentences -- 10.Multiple-Item Lists -- 10.1.Simple Lists -- Punctuation of Simple Lists to Ensure Equivalence -- Position of the List Within the Sentence -- 10.2.Use of Semicolons to Distinguish Items in Complex Lists -- 10.3.Numbered Items in a List -- Numbers Used to Avoid Ambiguity -- Other Reasons to Use Numbers in Lists -- 11.Strategies for Writing Better Lists -- 11.1.Strategies for Restoring Equivalence in Lists -- Equivalence Restored by Correcting Individual Items -- Equivalence Restored by Using Unbalanced Two-Item Lists -- Equivalence Restored by Using Compound Sentences -- 11.2.Scattered Items Combined Into a Single List -- 11.3.Equivalence Among Corresponding Lists -- 11.4.Colons Used With Lists -- 11.5.Stacked-Item Lists -- pt. III WORD CHOICE AND PLACEMENT -- 12.Adjectives and Adverbs -- 12.1.Strings of Adjectives -- Adjectives in Distinct Sets -- Adjectives in the Same Set -- 12.2.Hyphenated Adjectives and Adverbs -- Common Examples of Hyphenated Adjectives -- Special Considerations -- 12.3.Awkward Adjective Phrases -- 12.4.Examples of Adjective/Adverb Strings -- 12.5.Adverb Placement -- Placement of Adverbs With Respect to Compound Verbs -- Interruption of Compound Verbs by Adverbs -- Placement of Adverbs With Respect to Infinitives -- 13.Precision in Word Usage -- 13.1.Articles -- Distinctions Between Definite and Indefinite Singular Nouns -- Most Plural Nouns Do Not Require an Article -- Inherently Indefinite Nouns Usually Do Not Require an Article -- 13.2.Reference Words and their Antecedents -- Strategies to Avoid Ambiguity When the Antecedent is a Noun or Noun Phrase -- Strategies to Avoid Ambiguity When the Antecedent is an Idea -- 13.3.Unnecessary Words -- Words That Do Not Add Anything to the Meaning of a Sentence -- There Is, There Are -- 13.4.Redundant Word Usage -- pt. IV BEYOND SENTENCES -- 14.Paragraphs -- 14.1.Flow within Paragraphs -- Transition Words -- Sample Paragraphs -- Topic Sentences -- 14.2.Criteria for Dividing Long Paragraphs -- Example 1 An Example From This Book -- Example 2 An Example From an Actual Proposal -- 14.3.Paragraphs as Items in a List -- 15.Arguments -- 15.1.Premises and Theses -- Sample Premises for Research Proposals, Journal Submissions, and Business Plans -- Subpremises -- 15.2.Examples for Arguing a Premise -- Premise in a Research Proposal: The Problem Being Addressed Is Significant -- Premise in a Journal Submission: The Experimental Methods Are Appropriate -- Premise in a Business Plan: A Significant Market for the Technology Exists -- 16.Justification of Arguments -- 16.1.Justification of Claims in an Argument -- 16.2.Use of References to Justify Claims -- Citation of Sources Within the Text -- Conventions for Writing References -- 16.3.Ethics in Writing -- 17.Organization and Presentation -- 17.1.Outlining (or Not) -- Basic Elements of an Outline -- Headings -- More Detailed Outlines -- 17.2.Presentation -- The Need for Adequate White Space -- Tools for Enhancing the Presentation of an Argument.
- "This book is a guide to technical writing, presented in a systematic framework that mirrors the logic associated with the scientific process itself. Other English books merely define concepts and provide rules; this one explains the reasoning behind the rules. Other writing books for scientists and engineers focus primarily on how to gather and organize materials; this one focuses primarily on how to compose a readable sentence. The approach should be satisfying not only to scientists and engineers, but also to anyone who once took a grammar course but can't remember the rules--because there was no exposure to underlying principles"--
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