The Use of Water Vapor as a Refrigerant [electronic resource] : Impact of Cycle Modifications on Commercial Viability
- Washington, D.C. : United States. Dept. of Energy. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2004.
Oak Ridge, Tenn. : Distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy.
- Physical Description:
- 2.1 MB pages : digital, PDF file
- Additional Creators:
- Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute
United States. Department of Energy. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
United States. Department of Energy. Office of Scientific and Technical Information
- This project investigated the economic viability of using water as the refrigerant in a 1000-ton chiller application. The most attractive water cycle configuration was found to be a flash-intercooled, two-stage cycle using centrifugal compressors and direct contact heat exchangers. Component level models were developed that could be used to predict the size and performance of the compressors and heat exchangers in this cycle as well as in a baseline, R-134a refrigeration cycle consistent with chillers in use today. A survey of several chiller manufacturers provided information that was used to validate and refine these component models. The component models were integrated into cycle models that were subsequently used to investigate the life-cycle costs of both an R-134a and water refrigeration cycle. It was found that the first cost associated with the water as a refrigerant cycle greatly exceeded the savings in operating costs associated with its somewhat higher COP. Therefore, the water refrigeration cycle is not an economically attractive option to today's R-134a refrigeration system. There are a number of other issues, most notably the requirements associated with purging non-condensable gases that accumulate in a direct contact heat exchanger, which will further reduce the economic viability of the water cycle.
- Published through SciTech Connect.
Brandon F. Lachner, Jr.; Gregory F. Nellis; Douglas T. Reindl.
- Type of Report and Period Covered Note:
- Final; 07/17/2002 - 08/30/2004
- Funding Information:
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