A Novel Approach To Mineral Carbonation [electronic resource] : Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost
- Washington, D.C. : United States. Dept. of Energy, 2006.
Oak Ridge, Tenn. : Distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy.
- Additional Creators:
- Arizona State University, United States. Department of Energy, and United States. Department of Energy. Office of Scientific and Technical Information
- Restrictions on Access:
- Free-to-read Unrestricted online access
- Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO₂ emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO₂ sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg₂SiO₄) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO₂ into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO₃). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO₂ is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. Herein, we report our second year progress in exploring a novel approach that offers the potential to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity while bypassing pretreatment activation. As our second year progress is intimately related to our earlier work, the report is presented in that context to provide better overall understanding of the progress made. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly-stirred/circulating carbonation. We are exploring the mechanisms that govern carbonation reactivity and the impact that (i) modeling/controlling the slurry fluid-flow conditions, (ii) varying the aqueous ion species/size and concentration (e.g., Li⁺, Na⁺, K⁺, Rb⁺, Cl⁻, HCO₃⁻), and (iii) incorporating select sonication offer to enhance exfoliation and carbonation. We have succeeded in nearly doubling the extent of carbonation observed compared with the optimum procedure previously developed by the Albany Research Center. Aqueous carbonation reactivity was found to be a strong function of the ionic species present and their aqueous activities, as well as the slurry fluid flow conditions incorporated. High concentration sodium, potassium, and sodium/potassium bicarbonate aqueous solutions have been found to be the most effective solutions for enhancing aqueous olivine carbonation to date. Slurry-flow modeling using Fluent indicates that the slurry-flow dynamics are a strong function of particle size and mass, suggesting that controlling these parameters may offer substantial potential to enhance carbonation. Synergistic control of the slurry-flow and aqueous chemistry parameters offers further potential to improve carbonation reactivity, which is being investigated during the no-cost extension period. During the first project year we developed a new sonication exfoliation system with a novel sealing system to carry out the sonication studies. We also initiated(Abstract truncated).
- Report Numbers:
- E 1.99:895921
- Other Subject(s):
- Published through SciTech Connect.
Ray W. Carpenter; Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Kyle Squires; Hamdallah Bearat.
- Type of Report and Period Covered Note:
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