Simulation of seasonal cloud forcing anomalies [electronic resource].
- Washington, D.C. : United States. Dept. of Energy, 1990.
Oak Ridge, Tenn. : Distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy.
- Physical Description:
- 14 pages : digital, PDF file
- Additional Creators:
- Colorado State University. Department of Atmospheric Science
United States. Department of Energy
United States. Department of Energy. Office of Scientific and Technical Information
- One useful way to classify clouds is according to the processes that generate them. There are three main cloud-formation agencies: deep convection; surface evaporation; large-scale lifting in the absence of conditional instability. Although traditionally clouds have been viewed as influencing the atmospheric general circulation primarily through the release of latent heat, the atmospheric science literature contains abundant evidence that, in reality, clouds influence the general circulation through four more or less equally important effects: interactions with the solar and terrestrial radiation fields; condensation and evaporation; precipitation; small-scale circulations within the atmosphere. The most advanced of the current generation of GCMs include parameterizations of all four effects. Until recently there has been lingering skepticism, in the general circulation modeling community, that the radiative effects of clouds significantly influence the atmospheric general circulation. GCMs have provided the proof that the radiative effects of clouds are important for the general circulation of the atmosphere. An important concept in analysis of the effects of clouds on climate is the cloud radiative forcing (CRF), which is defined as the difference between the radiative flux which actually occurs in the presence of clouds, and that which would occur if the clouds were removed but the atmospheric state were otherwise unchanged. We also use the term CRF to denote warming or cooling tendencies due to cloud-radiation interactions. Cloud feedback is the change in CRF that accompanies a climate change. The present study concentrates on the planetary CRF and its response to external forcing, i.e. seasonal change.
- Published through SciTech Connect.
": Grant NAG-5-1058"
- Funding Information:
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