Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 1 [electronic resource] : Radiological surrogates
- Washington, D.C. : United States. Dept. of Energy, 1994.
Oak Ridge, Tenn. : Distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy.
- Physical Description:
- 93 pages : digital, PDF file
- Additional Creators:
- United States. Department of Energy
United States. Department of Energy. Office of Scientific and Technical Information
- The evaluation and comparison of proposed thermal treatment systems for mixed wastes can be expedited by tests in which the radioactive components of the wastes are replaced by surrogate materials chosen to mimic, as far as is possible, the chemical and physical properties of the radioactive materials of concern. In this work, sponsored by the Mixed Waste Integrated Project of the US Department of Energy, the authors have examined reported experience with such surrogates and suggest a simplified standard list of materials for use in tests of thermal treatment systems. The chief radioactive nuclides of concern in the treatment of mixed wastes are ²³⁹Pu, ²³⁸U, ²³⁵U, ¹³⁷Cs, ¹°³Ru, ⁹⁹Tc, and ⁹°Sr. These nuclides are largely by-products of uranium enrichment, reactor fuel reprocessing, and weapons program activities. Cs, Ru, and Sr all have stable isotopes that can be used as perfect surrogates for the radioactive forms. Technetium exists only in radioactive form, as do plutonium and uranium. If one wishes to preclude radioactive contamination of the thermal treatment system under trial burn, surrogate elements must be chosen for these three. For technetium, the authors suggest the use of natural ruthenium, and for both plutonium and uranium, they recommend cerium. The seven radionuclides listed can therefore be simulated by a surrogate package containing stable isotopes of ruthenium, strontium, cesium, and cerium.
- Published through SciTech Connect.
Lee, H.T.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Bostick, W.D.; Stockdale, J.A.D.
Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)
Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)
- Type of Report and Period Covered Note:
- Topical; 01/01/1994 - 01/01/1994
- Funding Information:
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