Experimental data and analysis to support the design of an ion-exchange process for the treatment of Hanford tank waste supernatant liquids [electronic resource].
- Washington, D.C. : United States. Dept. of Energy, 1994.
Oak Ridge, Tenn. : Distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy.
- Physical Description:
- 214 pages : digital, PDF file
- Additional Creators:
- Pacific Northwest Laboratory, United States. Department of Energy, and United States. Department of Energy. Office of Scientific and Technical Information
- Restrictions on Access:
- Free-to-read Unrestricted online access
- Hanford`s 177 underground storage tanks contain a mixture of sludge, salt cake, and alkaline supernatant liquids. Disposal options for these wastes are high-level waste (HLW) glass for disposal in a repository or low-level waste (LLW) glass for onsite disposal. Systems-engineering studies show that economic and environmental considerations preclude disposal of these wastes without further treatment. Difficulties inherent in transportation and disposal of relatively large volumes of HLW make it impossible to vitrify all of the tank waste as HLW. Potential environmental impacts make direct disposal of all of the tank waste as LLW glass unacceptable. Although the pretreatment and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include retrieval of the aqueous liquids, dissolution of the salt cakes, and washing of the sludges to remove soluble components. Most of the cesium is expected to be in the aqueous liquids, which are the focus of this report on cesium removal by ion exchange. The main objectives of the ion-exchange process are removing cesium from the bulk of the tank waste (i.e., decontamination) and concentrating the separated cesium for vitrification. Because exact requirements for removal of ¹³⁷Cs have not yet been defined, a range of removal requirements will be considered. This study addresses requirements to achieve ¹³⁷Cs levels in LLW glass between (1) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Class C (10 CFR 61) limit of 4600 Ci/m³ and (2) 1/10th of the NRC Class A limit of 1 Ci/m³ i.e., 0.1/m³. The required degrees of separation of cesium from other waste components is a complex function involving interactions between the design of the vitrification process, waste form considerations, and other HLW stream components that are to be vitrified.
- Report Numbers:
- E 1.99:pnl--10187
- Other Subject(s):
- Published through SciTech Connect.
Brown, G.N.; Carlson, C.D.; Kurath, D.E.; Brooks, K.P.; Bray, L.A.; Carson, K.J.; Kim, A.Y.; DesChane, J.R.; Bryan, S.A.; Elovich, R.J.
- Type of Report and Period Covered Note:
- Topical; 12/01/1994 - 12/01/1994
- Funding Information:
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