Dose assessment for management alternatives for NORM-contaminated equipment within the petroleum industry [electronic resource].
- Washington, D.C. : United States. Dept. of Energy, 1995. and Oak Ridge, Tenn. : Distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy.
- Physical Description:
- 9 pages : digital, PDF file
- Additional Creators:
- Argonne National Laboratory, United States. Department of Energy, and United States. Department of Energy. Office of Scientific and Technical Information
- Restrictions on Access:
- Free-to-read Unrestricted online access
- The contamination of drilling and production equipment by naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is a growing concern for the petroleum industry and regulators. Large volumes of NORM-contaminated scrap metal are generated by the industry each year. The contamination generally occurs as surface contamination on the interior of water-handling equipment. The source of this contamination is accumulation of by-product wastes, in the form of scale and sludge contaminated with NORM that are generated by extraction processes. The primary radionuclides of concern in petroleum industry NORM-wastes are radium-226 (Ra-226), and radium-228 (Ra-228). These isotopes are members of the uranium-238 and thorium-232 decay series, respectively. The uranium and thorium isotopes, which are naturally present in the subsurface formations from which hydrocarbons are extracted, are largely immobile and remain in the subsurface. The more soluble radium can become mobilized in the formation water and be transported to the surface in the produced water waste stream. The radium either remains in solution or precipitates in scale or sludge deposits, depending on water salinity and on temperature and pressure phase changes. NORM-containing scale consists of radium that has coprecipitated with barium, calcium, or strontium sulfates, and sludge typically consists of radium-containing silicates and carbonates. This assessment is limited to the evaluation of potential radiological doses from management options that specifically involve recycle and reuse of contaminated metal. Doses from disposal of contaminated equipment are not addressed. Radiological doses were estimated for workers and the general public for equipment decontamination and smelting. Results of this assessment can be used to examine policy issues concerning the regulation and management of NORM-contaminated wastes generated by the petroleum industry.
- Published through SciTech Connect., 08/01/1995., "anl/ea/cp--86378", " conf-950786--3", "DE95015829", 3. annual conference on the recycle and reuse of radioactive scrap metal, Knoxville, TN (United States), 31 Jul - 3 Aug 1995., and Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.
- Funding Information:
View MARC record | catkey: 14704980