Progress Towards High Performance, Steady-state Spherical Torus [electronic resource].
- Washington, D.C. : United States. Dept. of Energy. Office of Science, 2003.
Oak Ridge, Tenn. : Distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy.
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- 4.9 MB pages : digital, PDF file
- Additional Creators:
- United States. Department of Energy. Office of Science
United States. Department of Energy. Office of Scientific and Technical Information
- Research on the Spherical Torus (or Spherical Tokamak) is being pursued to explore the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more moderate aspect-ratio devices, such as the conventional tokamak. The Spherical Tours (ST) experiments are being conducted in various U.S. research facilities including the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and three medium-size ST research facilities: Pegasus at University of Wisconsin, HIT-II at University of Washington, and CDX-U at Princeton. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the U.S., an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a Demo device, are being discussed. For these, it is essential to develop high-performance, steady-state operational scenarios. The relevant scientific issues are energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta (B), noninductive sustainment, ohmic-solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In the confinement area, the NSTX experiments have shown that the confinement can be up to 50% better than the ITER-98-pby2 H-mode scaling, consistent with the requirements for an ST-based CTF and Demo. In NSTX, CTF-relevant average toroidal beta values bT of up to 35% with the near unity central betaT have been obtained. NSTX will be exploring advanced regimes where bT up to 40% can be sustained through active stabilization of resistive wall modes. To date, the most successful technique for noninductive sustainment in NSTX is the high beta-poloidal regime, where discharges with a high noninductive fraction (≈60% bootstrap current + neutral-beam-injected current drive) were sustained over the resistive skin time. Research on radio-frequency-based heating and current drive utilizing HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) and EBW (Electron Bernstein Wave) is also pursued on NSTX, Pegasus, and CDX-U. For noninductive start-up, the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI), developed in HIT/HIT-II, has been adopted on NSTX to test the method up to Ip ≈ 500 kA. In parallel, start-up using radio-frequency current drive and only external poloidal field coils are being developed on NSTX. The area of power and particle handling is expected to be challenging because of the higher power density expected in the ST relative to that in conventional aspect-ratio tokamaks. Due to its promise for power and particle handling, liquid lithium is being studied in CDX-U as a potential plasma-facing surface for a fusion reactor.
- Published through SciTech Connect.
D.W. Johnson; J. Foley; R.E. Bell; J.R. Wilson; B.A. Nelson; H.K. Park; R. Harvey; W. Davis; M.D. Carter; C.K. Phillips; S.M. Kaye; G. Taylor; M.G. Bell; K. Lee; M. Williams; R.E. Barry; D. Hoffman; P.M. Ryan; D.A. Gates; P. Roney; W. Blanchard; S.G. Lee; R. Ellis; K.W. Hill; J.H. Kim; D. Mueller; M.M. Menon; W.R. Wampler; T. Gray; M. Nagata; W. Houlberg; T. Stevenson; G.D. Porter; M. Ono; X. Tang; W. Park; A.L. Roquemore; X. Xu; C.H. Skinner; J. Timberlake; M. Schaffer; A. Rosenberg; G.A. Wurden; H. Ji; T. Bigelow; J.C. Hosea; T.R. Jarboe; J.R. Ferron; M. Rensink; L.L. Lao; P. Beiersdorfer; M. Bitter; B.C. Stratton; J. Boedo; R. Doerner; C. Bush; B.P. LeBlanc; R. Majeski; D.S. Darrow; E.D. Fredrickson; S.S. Medley; S.J. Zweben; P.C. Efthimion; R.J. Hawryluk; H.W. Kugel; M. Redi; G. Rewoldt; F.M. Levinton; E. Synakowski; E. Mazzucato; J. Manickam; F. Paoletti; J. Menard; T.K. Mau; R. Kaita; D.W. Swain; P.T. Bonoli; J. Wilgen; C. Kessel; S.C. Jardin; S.A. Sabbagh; C. Neumeyer; R.E. Hatcher; T. Gibney; L.R. Grisham; R. Akers; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; M. Finkenthal; D. Pacella; J. Chrzanowski; R. Parsells; V. Soukhanovskii; D. Stutman; Y.-K. M. Peng; L. Dudek; M. Kalish; S.F. Paul; S. Ramakrishnan; G. Oliaro; P. Sichta; N. Nishino; D. Stotler; K. Shaing; R. Raman; W. Heidbrink; N.C. Luhmann; R. Pinsker; R.J. Fonck; R.J. Goldston; J.M. Bialek; A. Von Halle; R. Marsala; A.K. Ram; R. Seraydarian; W. Choe; P.H. Probert; Y. Takase; E. Fredd; S. Kubota; O. Mitarai; J. Lowrance; M.W. Kissick; B. Deng; R. Maqueda; A. Glasser; K.L. Tritz; B.T. Lewicki; M. Gilmore; D. Piglowski; B. Blagojevic; J. Egedal; S. Shiraiwa; G.D. Garstka; A.C. Sontag; C. Bourdelle; J. Spaleta; T. Peebles; S.J. Diem; C.N. Ostrander; R.J. Schooff; E.A. Unterberg; D. Mastravito; B. Peneflor; R. Vero.
Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, NJ (US)
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