Radiative Forcing in the ACCMIP Historical and Future Climate Simulations
- Collins, W. J.
- March 15, 2013.
- Physical Description:
- 1 electronic document
- Additional Creators:
- Nagashima, T., Jiao, C., Rotstayn, L., Balkanski, Y., Mahowald, N., Milly, G., Easter, R., Dalsoren, S., Naik, V., Conley, A. J., Lee, Y. H., Voulgarakis, A., Myhre, G., Flanner, M., Skeie, R., Liu, X., Faluvegi, G., Young, P. J., Horowitz, L., Ghan, S., Shindell, Drew Todd, Chin, M., Schulz, M., Rumbold, S. T., and Lamarque, J.-F.
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- Unclassified, Unlimited, Publicly available.
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- A primary goal of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model IntercomparisonProject (ACCMIP) was to characterize the short-lived drivers of preindustrial to 2100climate change in the current generation of climate models. Here we evaluate historicaland 5 future radiative forcing in the 10 ACCMIP models that included aerosols, 8 of whichalso participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5).The models generally reproduce present-day climatological total aerosol opticaldepth (AOD) relatively well. components to this total, however, and most appear to underestimate AOD over East10 Asia. The models generally capture 1980-2000 AOD trends fairly well, though theyunderpredict AOD increases over the YellowEastern Sea. They appear to strongly underestimate absorbing AOD, especially in East Asia, South and Southeast Asia, SouthAmerica and Southern Hemisphere Africa.We examined both the conventional direct radiative forcing at the tropopause (RF) and the forcing including rapid adjustments (adjusted forcing AF, including direct andindirect effects). The models calculated all aerosol all-sky 1850 to 2000 global meanannual average RF ranges from 0.06 to 0.49 W m(sup -2), with a mean of 0.26 W m(sup -2) and a median of 0.27 W m(sup -2. Adjusting for missing aerosol components in some modelsbrings the range to 0.12 to 0.62W m(sup -2), with a mean of 0.39W m(sup -2). Screen20ing the models based on their ability to capture spatial patterns and magnitudes ofAOD and AOD trends yields a quality-controlled mean of 0.42W m(sup -2) and range of0.33 to 0.50 W m(sup -2) (accounting for missing components). The CMIP5 subset of ACCMIPmodels spans 0.06 to 0.49W m(sup -2), suggesting some CMIP5 simulations likelyhave too little aerosol RF. A substantial, but not well quantified, contribution to histori25cal aerosol RF may come from climate feedbacks (35 to 58). The mean aerosol AF during this period is 1.12W m(sup -2) (median value 1.16W m(sup -2), range 0.72 to1.44W m(sup -2), indicating that adjustments to aerosols, which include cloud, water vaporand temperature, lead to stronger forcing than the aerosol direct RF.
- NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Collection.
- Document ID: 20140009211.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics; Volume 13; Issue 6; 2939–2974.
- Copyright, Distribution as joint owner in the copyright.
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