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- This report summarizes the comparison of a variety of procedures used to purify carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotube material is produced by the arc process and laser oven process. Most of the procedures are tested using laser-grown, single-wall nanotube (SWNT) material. The material is characterized at each step of the purification procedures by using different techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The identified impurities are amorphous and graphitic carbon, catalyst particle aggregates, fullerenes, and hydrocarbons. Solvent extraction and low-temperature annealing are used to reduce the amount of volatile hydrocarbons and dissolve fullerenes. Metal catalysts and amorphous as well as graphitic carbon are oxidized by reflux in acids including HCl, HNO3 and HF and other oxidizers such as H2O2. High-temperature annealing in vacuum and in inert atmosphere helps to improve the quality of SWNTs by increasing crystallinity and reducing intercalation.
- NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Collection.
- Document ID: 20040200957.
- No Copyright.
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