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The main purpose of this project was to understand how the migration and growth of cultured cells respond to mechanical forces. We have made significant progress on all the proposed aims. The most important discoveries are that changes in the environmental mechanical input, such as during space flight, can induce profound changes in cell migration, growth, and programmed cell death. In addition, using genetically engineered cells, we have gained important insight into the molecular mechanism underlying such mechanosensing processes. The results are summarized.