Impact and Collisional Processes in the Solar System
- Ahrens, Thomas J.
- Jun. 15, 2001.
- Physical Description:
- 1 electronic document
- Restrictions on Access:
- Unclassified, Unlimited, Publicly available. and Free-to-read Unrestricted online access
- A series of impact experiments on anhydrite CaSO4, in which vaporized sample accelerates an element in a velocity interferometer, generate velocity data that we have recently reanalyzed using an explicit entropy generating finite difference code. The shock pressure required from the onset, and complete vaporization of 30% porous and 70% crystal density anhydrite is 52 +/- 3 and 122 +/- 13 GPa. Using observed acid leaching in non-marine K/T ejecta in North America, and the sharp global increase in Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios recorded at 65 Ma in marine rocks, we demonstrated that global acidification is primarily due to the SO2 released by anhydrite volatilization, and not HNO3 formed from bolide-induced air pyrolysis. Shock temperatures for crystal CaCO3 are measured from 3000 to 7000 K in the 90 to 160 GPa pressure range. These temperatures are much lower than calculated theoretically indicating that possibly bond breakdown at the shock front is occurring. This is the first mineral in which this effect has ever been seen. New data defining the ion species which are produced upon impact of volatilization of metals and minerals using a pulse ultraviolet laser to simulate intense shock heating from a projectile impact indicate that in shock experiments we can for the first time study the speciation of neutrals using a moderate resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Measurements of the gas species from a series of proposed impact experiments appear to be quite feasible. We will attempt these experiments in the next year. Measurements of the impact induced shock wave decay in SiO2 and GeO2 glass are underway to measure these pure oxide properties. Predictive calculations indicate that the pressure will decay as r(exp -2.7) in the phase transition regime, versus a much lower rate of r(exp -1.18), if a phase transition does not occur.
- NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Collection.
- Document ID: 20010065421. and CIT-TJA.64514-1-NASA.645140.
- No Copyright.
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