Southern Hemisphere In Situ Observations of OH, HO2, CIO and BrO from the ER-2 Aircraft for the 1994 ASHOE Mission
- Anderson, James G.
- Jan. 30, 1996.
- Physical Description:
- 1 electronic document
- Restrictions on Access:
- Unclassified, Unlimited, Publicly available. and Free-to-read Unrestricted online access
- A summary of the first order scientific conclusions that emerged from the research done under this grant are as follows: (1) For the first time, the concentration of the key hydrogen and halogen radicals OH, H02, ClO and BrO were determined on a global scale extending from the arctic circle to the antarctic circle, over the altitude domain of the ER-2. That domain extends from 15-20 km altitude, covering a critical part of the lower stratosphere; (2) Simultaneous, in situ measurements of the concentrations of OH, H02, ClO, BrO, NO and NO2 demonstrate the predominance of odd-hydrogen and halogen free radical catalysis in determining the rate of removal of ozone in the lower stratosphere over the complete ASHOE mission. This extends to the global scale the "first look" data obtained during the NASA Stratospheric Photochemistry and Dynamics Experiment (SPADE), executed out of Ames Research Center in June 1993. This represents a major rearrangement of our understanding with respect to the hierarchy of dominant catalytic cycles controlling ozone loss in the lower stratosphere. For the past twenty years, it has been assumed that nitrogen radicals dominate the destruction rate of ozone in the lower stratosphere; (3) Throughout the altitude and latitude range covered by ASHOE, it was determined that a single catalytic cycle, HO2 + O3 yields OH + 2O2, accounted for one half of the total O3 removal in this region of the atmosphere. Halogen radical catalytic cycles were found to account for one third of the ozone loss, and nitrogen radicals were found to account for 20% of the loss; (4) Simultaneous observations of the full complement of radicals, tracers, ozone, and water vapor during ASHOE demonstrated quantitatively the coupling that exists between the rate limiting radicals and other reactive species in the photochemical reaction network. Specifically, the concentrations of ClO and HO2 are inversely correlated with the concentration of NOx. This carries the implication that the NOx effluent from the proposed High Speed Civil Transport may be less destructive to stratospheric ozone than had previously been thought. ASHOE brought this conclusion forward for the first time on a global basis; and (5) The density of BrO was measured on a global scale during ASHOE in the lower stratosphere. It was found that bromine is responsible for 55-65% of the local rate of catalytic destruction of ozone by reactions involving bromine and chlorine. Normalizing calculated loss rates to total available inorganic bromine and chlorine explicitly demonstrates that bromine is 60-80 times more efficient than chlorine in removing ozone in the lower stratosphere. An inferred value of total inorganic bromine is in excellent agreement with measurements of their source species, organic bromine compounds in the troposphere.
- NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Collection.
- Document ID: 19980002430., NAS 1.26:206094., and NASA/CR-96-206094.
- No Copyright.
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