Numerical aperture limits on efficient ball lens coupling of laser diodes to single-mode fibers with defocus to balance spherical aberration
- Wilson, R. Gale
- Nov 1, 1994.
- Physical Description:
- 1 electronic document
- Restrictions on Access:
- Unclassified, Unlimited, Publicly available.
- The potential capabilities and limitations of single ball lenses for coupling laser diode radiation to single-mode optical fibers have been analyzed; parameters important to optical communications were specifically considered. These parameters included coupling efficiency, effective numerical apertures, lens radius, lens refractive index, wavelength, magnification in imaging the laser diode on the fiber, and defocus to counterbalance spherical aberration of the lens. Limiting numerical apertures in object and image space were determined under the constraint that the lens perform to the Rayleigh criterion of 0.25-wavelength (Strehl ratio = 0.80). The spherical aberration-defocus balance to provide an optical path difference of 0.25 wavelength units was shown to define a constant coupling efficiency (i.e., 0.56). The relative numerical aperture capabilities of the ball lens were determined for a set of wavelengths and associated fiber-core diameters of particular interest for single-mode fiber-optic communication. The results support general continuing efforts in the optical fiber communications industry to improve coupling links within such systems with emphasis on manufacturing simplicity, system packaging flexibility, relaxation of assembly alignment tolerances, cost reduction of opto-electronic components and long term reliability and stability.
- NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Collection.
- Document ID: 19950010856.
Accession ID: 95N17271.
- No Copyright.
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