Experimental studies of transpiration cooling with shock interaction in hypersonic flow, part B.
- Holden, Michael S.
- May 1, 1994.
- Physical Description:
- 1 electronic document
- Restrictions on Access:
- Unclassified, Unlimited, Publicly available.
- This report describes the result of experimental studies conducted to examine the effects of the impingement of an oblique shock on the flowfield and surface characteristics of a transpiration-cooled wall in turbulent hypersonic flow. The principal objective of this work was to determine whether the interaction between the oblique shock and the low-momentum region of the transpiration-cooled boundary layer created a highly distorted flowfield and resulted in a significant reduction in the cooling effectiveness of the transpiration-cooled surface. As a part of this program, we also sought to determine the effectiveness of transpiration cooling with nitrogen and helium injectants for a wide range of blowing rates under constant-pressure conditions in the absence of shock interaction. This experimental program was conducted in the Calspan 48-Inch Shock Tunnel at nominal Mach numbers of 6 and 8, for a Reynolds number of 7.5 x 10(exp 6). For these test conditions, we obtained fully turbulent boundary layers upstream of the interaction regions over the transpiration-cooled segment of the flat plate. The experimental program was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, we examined the effects of mass-addition level and coolant properties on the cooling effectiveness of transpiration-cooled surfaces in the absence of shock interaction. In the second phase of the program, we examined the effects of oblique shock impingement on the flowfield and surface characteristics of a transpiration-cooled surface. The studies were conducted for a range of shock strengths with nitrogen and helium coolants to examine how the distribution of heat transfer and pressure and the characteristics of the flowfield in the interaction region varied with shock strength and the level of mass addition from the transpiration-cooled section of the model. The effects of the distribution of the blowing rate along the interaction regions were also examined for a range of blowing rates through the transpiration-cooled panels. The regions of shockwave/boundary layer interaction examined in these studies were induced by oblique shocks generated with a sharp, flat plate, inclined to the freestream at angles of 5 degrees, 7.5 degrees, and 10 degrees. It was found that, in the absence of an incident shock, transpiration cooling was a very effective method for reducing both the heat transfer and the skin friction loads on the surface. The helium coolant was found to be significantly more effective than nitrogen, because of its low molecular weight and high specific heat. The studies of shock-wave/transpiration-cooled surface interaction demonstrated that the interaction region between the incident shock and the low-momentum transpiration-cooled boundary layer did not result in a significant increase in the size of attached or separated interaction regions, and did not result in significant flowfield distortions above the interaction region. The increase in heating downstream of the shock-impingement point could easily be reduced to the values without shock impingement by a relatively small increase in the transpiration cooling in this region. Surprisingly, this increase in cooling rate did not result in a significant increase in size of the region ahead of the incident shock or create a significantly enlarged interaction region with a resultant increase in the distortion level in the inviscid flow. Thus, transpiration cooling appears to be a very effective technique to cool the internal surfaces of scramjet engines, where shocks in the engine would induce large local increases in wall heating and create viscous/inviscid interactions that could significantly disturb the smooth flow through the combustor. However, if hydrogen is used as the coolant, burning upstream of shock impingement might result in localized hot spots. Clearly, further research is needed in this area.
- NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Collection.
- Document ID: 19940030459.
Accession ID: 94N34965.
- No Copyright.
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