Control-structure-thermal interactions in analysis of lunar telescopes
- Thompson, Roger C.
- Dec 1, 1992.
- Physical Description:
- 1 electronic document
- Restrictions on Access:
- Unclassified, Unlimited, Publicly available.
- The lunar telescope project was an excellent model for the CSTI study because a telescope is a very sensitive instrument, and thermal expansion or mechanical vibration of the mirror assemblies will rapidly degrade the resolution of the device. Consequently, the interactions are strongly coupled. The lunar surface experiences very large temperature variations that range from approximately -180 C to over 100 C. Although the optical assemblies of the telescopes will be well insulated, the temperature of the mirrors will inevitably fluctuate in a similar cycle, but of much smaller magnitude. In order to obtain images of high quality and clarity, allowable thermal deformations of any point on a mirror must be less than 1 micron. Initial estimates indicate that this corresponds to a temperature variation of much less than 1 deg through the thickness of the mirror. Therefore, a lunar telescope design will most probably include active thermal control, a means of controlling the shape of the mirrors, or a combination of both systems. Historically, the design of a complex vehicle was primarily a sequential process in which the basic structure was defined without concurrent detailed analyses or other subsystems. The basic configuration was then passed to the different teams responsible for each subsystem, and their task was to produce a workable solution without requiring major alterations to any principal components or subsystems. Consequently, the final design of the vehicle was not always the most efficient, owing to the fact that each subsystem design was partially constrained by the previous work. This procedure was necessary at the time because the analysis process was extremely time-consuming and had to be started over with each significant alteration of the vehicle. With recent advances in the power and capacity of small computers, and the parallel development of powerful software in structural, thermal, and control system analysis, it is now possible to produce very detailed analyses of intermediate designs in a much shorter period of time. The subsystems can thus be designed concurrently, and alterations in the overall design can be quickly adopted into each analysis; the design becomes an iterative process in which it is much easier to experiment with new ideas, configurations, and components. Concurrent engineering has the potential to produce efficient, highly capable designs because the effect of one subystem on another can be assessed in much more detail at a very early point in the program. The research program consisted of several tasks: scale a prototype telescope assembly to a 1 m aperture, develop a model of the telescope assembly by using finite element (FEM) codes that are available on site, determine structural deflections of the mirror surfaces due to the temperature variations, develop a prototype control system to maintain the proper shape of the optical elements, and most important of all, demonstrate the concurrent engineering approach with this example. In addition, the software used for the finite element models and thermal analysis was relatively new within the Program Development Office and had yet to be applied to systems this large or complex; understanding the software and modifying it for use with this project was also required. The I-DEAS software by Structural Dynamics Research Corporation (SDRC) was used to build the finite element models, and TMG developed by Maya Heat Transfer Technologies, Ltd. (which runs as an I-DEAS module) was used for the thermal model calculations. All control system development was accomplished with MATRIX(sub X) by Integrated Systems, Inc.
- NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Collection.
- Document ID: 19930008141.
Accession ID: 93N17330.
Alabama Univ., 1992 NASA(ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program; 5 p.
- No Copyright.
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