Experiment K-6-21. Effect of microgravity on 1) metabolic enzymes of type 1 and type 2 muscle fibers and on 2) metabolic enzymes, neutransmitter amino acids, and neurotransmitter associated enzymes in motor and somatosensory cerebral cortex. Part 1 : Metabolic enzymes of individual muscle fibers; part 2: metabolic enzymes of hippocampus and spinal cord
- Maggie, M.-Y. Chi
- Feb 1, 1990.
- Physical Description:
- 1 electronic document
- Additional Creators:
- Krasnov, I., Lowry, O., Mcdougal, D., Jr., Nemeth, Patti M., Norris, Beverly, Manchester, J., Carter, J., and Pusateri, M.
- Restrictions on Access:
- Unclassified, Unlimited, Publicly available.
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- The individual fibers of any individual muscle vary greatly in enzyme composition, a fact which is obscured when enzyme levels of a whole muscle are measured. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the changes due to weightless on the enzyme patterns composed by the individual fibers within the flight muscles. In spite of the limitation in numbers of muscles examined, it is apparent that: (1) that the size of individual fibers (i.e., their dry weight) was reduced about a third, (2) that this loss in dry mass was accompanied by changes in the eight enzymes studied, and (3) that these changes were different for the two muscles, and different for the two enzyme groups. In the soleus muscle the absolute amounts of the three enzymes of oxidative metabolism decreased about in proportion to the dry weight loss, so that their concentration in the atrophic fibers was almost unchanged. In contrast, there was little loss among the four enzymes of glycogenolysis - glycolysis so that their concentrations were substantially increased in the atrophic fibers. In the TA muscle, these seven enzymes were affected in just the opposite direction. There appeared to be no absolute loss among the oxidative enzymes, whereas the glycogenolytic enzymes were reduced by nearly half, so that the concentrations of the first metabolic group were increased within the atrophic fibers and the concentrations of the second group were only marginally decreased. The behavior of hexokinase was exceptional in that it did not decrease in absolute terms in either type of muscle and probably increased as much as 50 percent in soleus. Thus, their was a large increase in concentration of this enzyme in the atrophied fibers of both muscles. Another clear-cut finding was the large increase in the range of activities of the glycolytic enzymes among individual fibers of TA muscles. This was due to the emergence of TA fibers with activities for enzymes of this group extending down to levels as low as those found in control soleus muscles. It would be interesting to know if this represents a transition stage, and whether with prolonged weightlessness most of the fibers would be transformed into a low glycogenolytic type.
- Other Subject(s):
- NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Collection.
- Document ID: 19900017158.
Accession ID: 90N26474.
NASA, Ames Research Center, The US Experiments Flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1887; p 393-418.
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