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Electron beam devices, primarily traveling wave tubes (TWTs), have been used as the power amplifiers in almost all space communications and data transmission systems. Based on the technology that is presently available and the expected success of current research efforts, it is reasonable to predict the development of a new class of microwave TWTs with efficiencies in excess of 60 percent and lifetimes of at least 10 years. Because of this rapid advance of technology, the TWT is expected to remain the dominant device for power amplifiers in space.