Downwash in the plane of symmetry of an elliptically loaded wing
- Phillips, J. D.
- Jan 1, 1985.
- Physical Description:
- 1 electronic document
- Restrictions on Access:
- Unclassified, Unlimited, Publicly available. and Free-to-read Unrestricted online access
- A closed-form solution for the downwash in the plane of symmetry of an elliptically loaded line is given. This theoretical result is derived from Prandtl's lifting-line theory and assumes that: (1) a three-dimensional wing can be replaced by a straight lifting line, (2) this line is elliptically loaded, and (3) the trailing wake is a flat-sheet which does not roll up. The first assumption is reasonable for distances greater than about 1 chord from the wing aerodynamic center. The second assumption is satisfied by any combination of wing twist, spanwise camber variation, or planform that approximates elliptic loading. The third assumption is justified only for high-aspect-ratio wings at low lift coefficients and downstream distances less than about 1 span from the aerodynamic center. It is shown, however, that assuming the wake to be fully rolled up gives downwash values reasonably close to those of the flat-sheet solution derived in this paper. The wing can therefore be modeled as a single horseshoe vortex with the same lift and total circulation as the equivalent ellipticity loaded line, and the predicted downwash will be a close approximation independent of aspect ratio and lift coefficient. The flat-sheet equation and the fully rolled up wake equation are both one-line formulas that predict the upwash field in front of the wing, as well as the downwash field behind it. These formulas are useful for preliminary estimates of the complex aerodynamic interaction between two wings (i.e., canard, tandem wing, and conventional aircraft) including the effects of gap and stagger.
- NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Collection.
- Document ID: 19850007384., Accession ID: 85N15693., NASA-TP-2414., A-9871., and NAS 1.60:2414.
- No Copyright.
View MARC record | catkey: 15706036