Society : the basics / John J. Macionis
- Macionis, John J.
- Boston : Pearson, 
- Thirteenth edition.
- Physical Description:
- xix, 629 pages : color illustrations, color maps ; 28 cm
- Machine generated contents note: The Power of Society to guide our choices in marriage partners -- The Sociological Perspective -- 1.1.Explain how the sociological perspective helps us understand that society shapes our individual lives. -- Seeing the General in the Particular -- Seeing the Strange in the Familiar -- Seeing Society in Our Everyday Lives -- Seeing Sociologically: Marginality and Crisis -- The Importance of a Global Perspective -- 1.2.State several reasons that a global perspective is important in today's world. -- Applying the Sociological Perspective -- 1.3.Identify the advantages of sociological thinking for developing public policy, for encouraging personal growth, and for advancing in a career. -- Sociology and Public Policy -- Sociology and Personal Growth -- Careers: The "Sociology Advantage" -- The Origins of Sociology -- 1.4.Link the origins of sociology to historical social changes. -- Social Change and Sociology -- Science and Sociology -- Sociological Theory -- 1.5.Summarize sociology's major theoretical approaches. -- The Structural-Functional Approach -- The Social-Conflict Approach -- Feminism and Gender-Conflict Theory -- Race-Conflict Theory -- The Symbolic-Interaction Approach -- Three Ways to Do Sociology -- 1.6.Describe sociology's three research orientations. -- Positivist Sociology -- Interpretive Sociology -- Critical Sociology -- Research Orientations and Theory -- Gender and Research -- 1.7.Identify the importance of gender in sociological research. -- Research Ethics -- 1.8.Discuss the importance of ethics to sociological research. -- Research Methods -- 1.9.Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology's research methods. -- Testing a Hypothesis: The Experiment -- Asking Questions: Survey Research -- In the Field: Participant Observation -- Using Available Data: Existing Sources -- Putting It All Together: Ten Steps in Sociological Research -- 1.10.Recall the ten important steps in carrying out sociological research. -- Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life -- Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life -- Making the Grade -- The Power of Society to guide our attitudes on social issues such as abortion -- What Is Culture? -- 2.1.Explain the development of culture as a human strategy for survival. -- Culture and Human Intelligence -- Culture, Nation, and Society -- How Many Cultures? -- The Elements of Culture -- 2.2.Identify common elements of culture. -- Symbols -- Language -- Values and Beliefs -- Norms -- Ideal and Real Culture -- Technology and Culture -- 2.3.Analyze how a society's level of technology shapes its culture. -- Hunting and Gathering -- Horticulture and Pastoralism -- Agriculture -- Industry -- Postindustrial Information Technology -- Cultural Diversity: Many Ways of Life in One World -- 2.4.Discuss dimensions of cultural difference and cultural change. -- High Culture and Popular Culture -- Subculture -- Multiculturalism -- Counterculture -- Cultural Change -- Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism -- A Global Culture? -- Theories of Culture -- 2.5.Apply sociology's macro-level theories to gain greater understanding of culture. -- The Functions of Culture: Structural-Functional Theory -- Inequality and Culture: Social-Conflict Theory -- Gender and Culture: Feminist Theory -- Evolution and Culture: Sociobiology -- Culture and Human Freedom -- 2.6.Critique culture as limiting or expanding human freedom. -- Culture as Constraint -- Culture as Freedom -- Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life -- Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life -- Making the Grade -- The Power of Society to shape how much television we watch -- Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity -- 3.1.Describe how social interaction is the foundation of personality. -- Human Development: Nature and Nurture -- Social Isolation -- Understanding Socialization -- 3.2.Explain six major theories of socialization. -- Sigmund Freud's Elements of Personality -- Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development -- Lawrence Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development -- Carol Gilligan's Theory of Gender and Moral Development -- George Herbert Mead's Theory of the Social Self -- Erik H. Erikson's Eight Stages of Development -- Agents of Socialization -- 3.3.Analyze how the family, school, peer groups, and the mass media guide the socialization process. -- The Family -- The School -- The Peer Group -- The Mass Media -- Socialization and the Life Course -- 3.4.Discuss how our society organizes human experience into distinctive stages of life. -- Childhood -- Adolescence -- Adulthood -- Old Age -- Death and Dying -- The Life Course: Patterns and Variations -- Resocialization: Total Institutions -- 3.5.Characterize the operation of total institutions. -- Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life -- Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life -- Making the Grade -- The Power of Society to guide the way we do social networking -- Social Structure: A Guide to Everyday Living -- 4.1.Explain how social structure helps us to make sense of everyday situations. -- Status -- 4.2.State the importance of status to social organization. -- Status Set -- Ascribed and Achieved Status -- Master Status -- Role -- 4.3.State the importance of role to social organization. -- Role Set -- Role Conflict and Role Strain -- Role Exit -- The Social Construction of Reality -- 4.4.Describe how we socially construct reality. -- The Thomas Theorem -- Ethnomethodology -- Reality Building: Class and Culture -- The Increasing Importance of Social Media -- Dramaturgical Analysis: The "Presentation of Self" -- 4.5.Apply Goffman's analysis to several familiar situations. -- Performances -- Nonverbal Communication -- Gender and Performances -- Idealization -- Embarrassment and Tact -- Interaction in Everyday Life: Three Applications -- 4.6.Construct a sociological analysis of three aspects of everyday life: emotions, language, and humor. -- Emotions: The Social Construction of Feeling -- Language: The Social Construction of Gender -- Reality Play: The Social Construction of Humor -- Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life -- Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life -- Making the Grade -- The Power of Society to link people into groups -- Social Groups -- 5.1.Explain the importance of various types of groups to social life. -- Primary and Secondary Groups -- Group Leadership -- Group Conformity -- Reference Groups -- In-Groups and Out-Groups -- Group Size -- Social Diversity: Race, Class, and Gender -- Networks -- Social Media and Networking -- Formal Organizations -- 5.2.Describe the operation of large, formal organizations. -- Types of Formal Organizations -- Origins of Formal Organizations -- Characteristics of Bureaucracy -- Organizational Environment -- The Informal Side of Bureaucracy -- Problems of Bureaucracy -- Oligarchy -- The Evolution of Formal Organizations -- 5.3.Summarize the changes to formal organizations over the course of the last century. -- Scientific Management -- The First Challenge: Race and Gender -- The Second Challenge: The Japanese Work Organization -- The Third Challenge: The Changing Nature of Work -- The "McDonaldization" of Society -- The Future of Organizations: Opposing Trends -- 5.4.Assess the consequences of modern social organization for social life. -- Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life -- Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life -- Making the Grade -- The Power of Society to shape our attitudes on social issues involving sexuality -- Understanding Sexuality -- 6.1.Describe how sexuality is both a biological and a cultural issue. -- Sex: A Biological Issue -- Sex and the Body -- Sex: A Cultural Issue -- The Incest Taboo -- Sexual Attitudes in the United States -- 6.2.Explain changes in sexual attitudes in the United States. -- The Sexual Revolution -- The Sexual Counterrevolution -- Premarital Sex -- Sex between Adults -- Extramarital Sex -- Sex over the Life Course -- Sexual Orientation -- 6.3.Analyze factors that shape sexual orientation. -- What Gives Us a Sexual Orientation? -- How Many Gay People Are There? -- The Gay Rights Movement -- Transgender -- Sexual Issues and Controversies -- 6.4.Discuss several current controversies involving sexuality. -- Teen Pregnancy -- Pornography -- Prostitution -- Sexual Violence: Rape and Date Rape -- Theories of Sexuality -- 6.5.Apply sociology's major theories to the topic of sexuality. -- Structural-Functional Theory -- Symbolic-Interaction Theory -- Social-Conflict and Feminist Theories -- Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life -- Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life -- Making the Grade -- The Power of Society to affect the odds of being incarcerated for using drugs -- What Is Deviance? -- 7.1.Explain how sociology addresses limitations of a biological or psychological approach to deviance. -- Social Control -- The Biological Context -- Personality Factors -- The Social Foundations of Deviance -- The Functions of Deviance: Structural-Functional Theories -- 7.2.Apply structural-functional theories to the topic of deviance. -- Durkheim's Basic Insight -- Merton's Strain Theory -- Deviant Subcultures -- Defining Deviance: Symbolic-Interaction Theories -- 7.3.Apply symbolic-interaction theories to the topic of deviance. -- Labeling Theory -- The Medicalization of Deviance -- The Difference Labels Make -- Sutherland's Differential Association Theory -- Hirschi's Control Theory -- Deviance and Inequality: Social-Conflict Theories -- 7.4.Apply social-conflict theories to the topic of deviance. -- Deviance and Power -- Deviance and Capitalism -- White-Collar Crime -- Corporate Crime -- Organized Crime -- Deviance, Race, and Gender: Race-Conflict and Feminist Theories -- 7.5.Apply race-conflict and feminist theories to the topic of deviance. -- Race-Conflict Theory: Hate Crimes -- Feminist Theory: Deviance and Gender -- Crime -- 7.6.Identify patterns of crime in the United States and around the world. -- Types of Crime -- Criminal Statistics -- The Street Criminal: A Profile --, Contents note continued: Crime in Global Perspective -- The U.S. Criminal Justice System -- 7.7.Analyze the operation of the criminal justice system. -- Due Process -- Police -- Courts -- Punishment -- The Death Penalty -- Community-Based Corrections -- Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life -- Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life -- Making the Grade -- The Power of Society to shape our chances of living in poverty -- What Is Social Stratification? -- 8.1.Identify four principles that underlie social stratification. -- Caste and Class Systems -- 8.2.Apply the concepts of caste, class, and meritocracy to societies around the world. -- The Caste System -- The Class System -- Caste and Class: The United Kingdom -- Classless Societies? The Former Soviet Union -- China: Emerging Social Classes -- Ideology: The Power behind Stratification -- Explaining Stratification: Structural-Functional Theory -- 8.3.Apply structural-functional theory to the topic of social inequality. -- The Davis-Moore Thesis -- Explaining Stratification: Social-Conflict Theories -- 8.4.Apply social-conflict theories to the topic of social inequality. -- Karl Marx: Class Conflict -- Why No Marxist Revolution? -- Max Weber: Class, Status, and Power -- Explaining Stratification: Symbolic-Interaction Theory -- 8.5.Apply symbolic-interaction theory to the topic of social inequality. -- Social Stratification and Technology: A Global Perspective -- 8.6.Analyze the link between a society's technology and its social stratification. -- Hunting and Gathering Societies -- Horticultural, Pastoral, and Agrarian Societies -- Industrial Societies -- The Kuznets Curve -- Inequality in the United States -- 8.7.Describe the distribution of income and wealth in the United States. -- Income, Wealth, and Power -- Occupational Prestige -- Schooling -- Ancestry, Race, and Gender -- Social Classes in the United States -- 8.8.Discuss the various social class positions in U.S. society. -- The Upper Class -- The Middle Class -- The Working Class -- The Lower Class -- The Difference Class Makes -- 8.9.Analyze how social class position affects health, values, politics, and family life. -- Health -- Values and Attitudes -- Politics -- Family and Gender -- Social Mobility -- 8.10.Assess the extent of social mobility in the United States. -- Research on Mobility -- Mobility by Income Level -- Mobility: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender -- Mobility and Marriage -- The American Dream: Still a Reality? -- The Global Economy and the U.S. Class Structure -- Poverty in the United States -- 8.11.Summarize patterns and explanations of poverty in the U.S. population. -- The Extent of Poverty -- Who Are the Poor? -- Explaining Poverty -- The Working Poor -- Homelessness -- Increasing Inequality, Increasing Controversy -- 8.12.Assess the trend toward increasing economic inequality in the United States. -- Are the Very Rich Worth the Money? -- Can the Rest of Us Get Ahead? -- Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life -- Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life -- Making the Grade -- The Power of Society to determine a child's chance of survival to age five -- Global Stratification: An Overview -- 9.1.Describe the division of the world into high-, middle-, and low-income countries. -- A Word about Terminology -- High-Income Countries -- Middle-Income Countries -- Low-Income Countries -- Global Wealth and Poverty -- 9.2.Discuss patterns and explanations of poverty around the world. -- The Severity of Poverty -- The Extent of Poverty -- Poverty and Children -- Poverty and Women -- Slavery -- Explanations of Global Poverty -- Theories of Global Stratification -- 9.3.Apply sociological theories to the topic of global inequality. -- Modernization Theory -- Dependency Theory -- The Future of Global Stratification -- 9.4.Evaluate trends in global inequality. -- Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life -- Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life -- Making the Grade -- The Power of Society to guide our life choices -- Gender and Inequality -- 10.1.Describe research that points to how society creates gender stratification. -- Male-Female Differences -- Gender in Global Perspective -- Patriarchy and Sexism -- Gender and Socialization -- 10.2.Explain the importance of gender to socialization. -- Gender and the Family -- Gender and the Peer Group -- Gender and Schooling -- Gender and the Mass Media -- Gender and Social Stratification -- 10.3.Analyze the extent of gender inequality in various social institutions. -- Working Women and Men -- Gender and Unemployment -- Gender, Income, and Wealth -- Housework: Women's "Second Shift" -- Gender and Education -- Gender and Politics -- Gender and the Military -- Are Women a Minority? -- Violence against Women -- Violence against Men -- Sexual Harassment -- Pornography -- Theories of Gender -- 10.4.Apply sociology's major theories to gender stratification. -- Structural-Functional Theory -- Symbolic-Interaction Theory -- Social-Conflict Theory -- Intersection Theory -- Feminism -- 10.5.Contrast liberal, radical, and socialist feminism. -- Basic Feminist Ideas -- Types of Feminism -- Public Support for Feminism -- Gender: Looking Ahead -- Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life -- Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life -- Making the Grade -- The Power of Society to shape political attitudes -- The Social Meaning of Race and Ethnicity -- 11.1.Explain the social construction of race and ethnicity. -- Race -- Ethnicity -- Minorities -- Prejudice and Stereotypes -- 11.2.Describe the extent and causes of prejudice. -- Measuring Prejudice: The Social Distance Scare -- Racism -- Theories of Prejudice -- Discrimination -- 11.3.Distinguish discrimination from prejudice. -- Institutional Prejudice and Discrimination -- Prejudice and Discrimination: The Vicious Circle -- Majority and Minority: Patterns of Interaction -- 11.4.Identify examples of pluralism, assimilation, segregation, and genocide. -- Pluralism -- Assimilation -- Segregation -- Genocide -- Race and Ethnicity in the United States -- 11.5.Assess the social standing of racial and ethnic categories of U.S. society. -- Native Americans -- White Anglo-Saxon Protestants -- African Americans -- Asian Americans -- Hispanic Americans/Latinos -- Arab Americans -- White Ethnic Americans -- Race and Ethnicity: Looking Ahead -- Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life -- Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life -- Making the Grade -- The Power of Society to shape our choices in jobs -- The Economy: Historical Overview -- 12.1.Summarize historical changes to the economy. -- The Agricultural Revolution -- The Industrial Revolution -- The Information Revolution and Postindustrial Society -- Sectors of the Economy -- The Global Economy -- Economic Systems: Paths to Justice -- 12.2.Assess the operation of capitalist and socialist economies. -- Capitalism -- Socialism -- Welfare Capitalism and State Capitalism -- Relative Advantages of Capitalism and Socialism -- Work in the Postindustrial U.S. Economy -- 12.3.Analyze patterns of employment and unemployment in the United States. -- The Changing Workplace -- Labor Unions -- Professions -- Self-Employment -- Unemployment and Underemployment -- The "Jobless Recovery" -- Workplace Diversity: Race and Gender -- New Information Technology and Work -- Corporations -- 12.4.Discuss the importance of corporations to the U.S. economy. -- Economic Concentration -- Conglomerates and Corporate Linkages -- Corporations: Are They Competitive? -- Corporations and the Global Economy -- The Economy: Looking Ahead -- Power and Authority -- 12.5.Distinguish traditional, rational-legal, and charismatic authority. -- Politics in Global Perspective -- 12.6.Compare monarchy and democracy as well as authoritarian and totalitarian political systems. -- Monarchy -- Democracy -- Authoritarianism -- Totalitarianism -- A Global Political System? -- Politics in the United States -- 12.7.Analyze economic and social issues using the political spectrum. -- U.S. Culture and the Rise of the Welfare State -- The Political Spectrum -- Special-Interest Groups -- Voter Apathy -- Should Convicted Criminals Vote? -- Theories of Power in Society -- 12.8.Apply the pluralist, power-elite, and Marxist models to the U.S. political system. -- The Pluralist Model: The People Rule -- The Power-Elite Model: A Few People Rule -- The Marxist Model: The System Is Biased -- Power beyond the Rules -- 12.9.Describe causes of both revolution and terrorism. -- Revolution -- Terrorism -- War and Peace -- 12.10.Identify factors encouraging war or peace. -- The Causes of War -- Social Class, Gender, and the Military -- Is Terrorism a New Kind of War? -- The Costs and Causes of Militarism -- Nuclear Weapons -- Mass Media and War -- Pursuing Peace -- Politics: Looking Ahead -- Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life -- Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life -- Making the Grade -- The Power of Society to shape our values and beliefs -- Family: Basic Concepts and Global Variations -- 13.1.Describe families and how they differ around the world. -- Marriage Patterns -- Residential Patterns -- Patterns of Descent -- Patterns of Authority -- Theories of the Family -- 13.2.Apply sociology's major theories to family life. -- Functions of the Family: Structural-Functional Theory -- Inequality and the Family: Social-Conflict and Feminist Theories -- Constructing Family Life: Micro-Level Theories -- Stages of Family Life -- 13.3.Analyze changes in the family over the life course. -- Courtship and Romantic Love -- Settling In: Ideal and Real Marriage -- Child Rearing -- The Family in Later Life -- U.S. Families: Class, Race, and Gender -- 13.4.Explain how class, race, and gender shape family life. -- Social Class -- Ethnicity and Race -- Gender -- Transitions and Problems in Family Life -- 13.5.Analyze the effects of divorce, remarriage, and violence on family life. -- Divorce -- Remarriage and Blended Families -- Family Violence -- Alternative Family Forms --, and Contents note continued: 13.6.Describe the diversity of family life in the United States. -- One-Parent Families -- Cohabitation -- Gay and Lesbian Couples -- Singlehood -- New Reproductive Technologies and Families -- Families: Looking Ahead -- Religion: Concepts and Theories -- 13.7.Apply sociology's major theories to religion. -- Functions of Religion: Structural-Functional Theory -- Constructing the Sacred: Symbolic-Interaction Theory -- Inequality and Religion: Social-Conflict Theory -- Gender and Religion: Feminist Theory -- Religion and Social Change -- 13.8.Analyze how religion encourages social change. -- Max Weber: Protestantism and Capitalism.
- 9780205982516 (student version ; softcover)
0205982514 (student version ; softcover)
9780133752755 (books à la carte)
0133752755 (books à la carte)
- Bibliography Note:
- Includes bibliographical references (pages 585-608) and index.
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