The molecule as meme / Jeffrey Huw Williams
- Williams, Jeffrey H. (Jeffrey Huw), 1956-
- San Rafael [California] (40 Oak Drive, San Rafael, CA, 94903, USA) : Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 
Bristol [England] (Temple Circus, Temple Way, Bristol BS1 6HG, UK) : IOP Publishing, 
- Physical Description:
- 1 online resource (various pagings) : illustrations (some color).
- Additional Creators:
- Morgan & Claypool Publishers and Institute of Physics (Great Britain)
- 1. Atomism -- 1.1. Greek atomism -- 1.2. The atomic renaissance -- 1.3. Early-modern atomic theory, and the birth of experimental science, 2. Order in the kinetic chaos -- 2.1. Going inside the indivisible atom -- 2.2. At the centre of the atom -- 2.3. Wave-like, or particle-like? -- 2.4. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, 3. How molecules have been viewed -- 3.1. Some history, 4. The molecular meme : Avogadro and his constant -- 4.1. Measurement of NA by x-ray crystal density (XRCD) methods -- 4.2. The mole, or the quantity of something, 5. The reality of molecules -- 5.1. The origin of physical chemistry -- 5.2. Albert Einstein's PhD thesis -- 5.3. Robert Brown and pollen grains -- 5.4. Brownian motion -- 5.5. Final comment, 6. A physical chemistry primer -- 6.1. The debate about Brownian motion -- 6.2. Continuum models -- 6.3. Brownian motion and the molecular meme -- 6.4. Osmotic pressure -- 6.5. Brownian motion after Einstein -- 6.6. Jean Perrin's determination of Avogadro's number, 7. How is energy partitioned in molecules? -- 7.1. Degrees of freedom -- 7.2. Translational energy and ideal gases -- 7.3. Rotational and vibrational dynamics -- 7.4. The end of classical physics -- 7.5. Heat capacities -- 7.6. Black-body radiation and the birth of quantum mechanics -- 7.7. A final point : entropy, 8. The quantum mechanical synthesis of chemistry and physics -- 8.1. Coupling electrons together -- 8.2. The angular momenta of multiple systems -- 8.3. Term symbols -- 8.4. The Pauli principle -- 8.5. The periodic table of elements, 9. Molecules and emergent properties -- 9.1. Origin of complexity -- 9.2. Complexity arising between atoms, 10. Making measurable the invisibly small : the interaction of molecules with electric and magnetic fields -- 10.1. Molecular polarization -- 10.2. The Clausius-Mosotti equation -- 10.3. Equilibrium-averaged dipole moment -- 10.4. The local field -- 10.5. Dynamic electric and magnetic fields -- 10.6. Maxwell's equations -- 10.7. Unit conversion -- 10.8. The polarization of electromagnetic radiation -- 10.9. Linear and circular polarization, 11. Optical activity -- 11.1. Some background details about magnetic fields -- 11.2. Experimental and theoretical details of optical activity -- 11.3. The Faraday effect -- 11.4. The Kerr effect, 12. From the point of view of the molecule -- 12.1. A vector -- 12.2. Cartesian tensors -- 12.3. Some useful properties of tensors -- 12.4. Isotropic averages of tensors -- 12.5. Collision-induced light scattering, and 13. Conclusion : molecules as microcosms -- 13.1. Molecular motors -- 13.2. The devil in the detail.
- It was not until 1971 that the authority for defining scientific units, the General Conference of Weights and Measures got around to defining the unit that is the basis of chemistry (the mole, or the quantity of something). Yet for all this tardiness in putting the chemical sciences on a sound quantitative basis, chemistry is an old and venerable subject and one naturally asks the question, why? Well, the truth is that up until the mid-1920s, many physicists did not believe in the reality of molecules. Indeed, it was not until after the physics community had accepted Ernest Rutherford's 1913 solar-system-like model of the atom, and the quantum mechanical model of the coupling of electron spins in atoms that physicists started to take seriously the necessity of explaining the chemical changes that chemists had been observing, investigating and recording since the days of the alchemists.
- 9781643272924 ebook
- "Version: 20181101"--Title page verso.
"A Morgan & Claypool publication as part of IOP Concise Physics"--Title page verso.
- Bibliography Note:
- Includes bibliographical references.
- Other Forms:
- Also available in print.
- Technical Details:
- Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System requirements: Adobe Acrobat Reader, EPUB reader, or Kindle reader.
- Administrative History:
- Jeffrey H. Williams earned his PhD in Chemical Physics at the University of Cambridge in 1981. His most recent position was the head of publications and communications at the Bureau international des poids et mesures (BIPM), Sèvres. Since retirement, he has authored four other books in the IOP Concise Physics series: Defining and Measuring Nature: The make of all things, Order from Force: A natural history of the vacuum, Quantifying Measurement: The tyranny of number, and Crystal Engineering: How molecules build solids.
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