Patients with passports : medical tourism, law and ethics / I. Glenn Cohen
- Cohen, I. Glenn
- New York : Oxford University Press, 2014.
- Physical Description:
- 1 online resource
- Machine generated contents note: I.The Voices of Medical Tourists -- A.Carl -- B.Joy and Gary -- C.Mr. Steeles -- D.Akash -- E.Daniel James -- F.Samuel Ghilain -- G.C and His Parents -- II.Acknowledgments -- 1.An Introduction to the Medical Tourism Industry -- I.Kinds of Medical Tourism -- A.Dividing the Industry by Legal Status of Treatment -- B.Dividing the Industry by Payer Type -- i.Patients Paying Out-of-Pocket -- ii.Patients Whose Medical Tourism Is Covered by Private Insurers -- iii.Patients Whose Medical Tourism Is Covered by Public Insurers (Home Country Governments) -- C.Dividing by Direction of Patient Flow -- II.Understanding How the Industry Works and Its Major Players -- A.Destination Country Governments -- B.Destination Country Hospitals and Their Staff -- C.Accreditors -- D.Facilitators -- E.Insurers -- F.Home Country Partners -- G.Industry Associations 33 -- 2.Quality and Information -- I.What Is Known about the Quality of Foreign Facilities and Providers and the Risks Faced by Medical Tourists? -- A.Risks due to Complications from Improperly Performed Procedures -- B.Disease Transmission (Especially Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria) -- C.Continuity of Medical Documentation and Difficulties in Providing Follow-Up Care -- II.What Might Be Done to Ensure That Patients Are Protected? -- A.Why Providing Information Is Desirable but Insufficient -- i.What Information Is Currently Available? -- ii.What Kind of Information Would We Want to Have Available for Patients to Make Rational Choices and How Would We Induce Disclosure? -- iii.Problems with Information Disclosure -- B.Interventions That Restrict Patient Choice -- i.Three Important Considerations -- ii.Mechanisms for Restricting Patient Choice -- C.Channeling -- i.Forms of Channeling -- 1.Channeling by Service -- 2.Channeling by Experience -- 3.Channeling by Accreditation or Other Signal of Quality -- 4.Channeling by Outcome and Infection Data -- III.Conclusion -- 3.Legal Liability -- I.Medical-Malpractice Liability for Injuries Sustained during Treatment 8o -- A.Why Care about Medical-Malpractice Liability -- B.Why Patients Face a Lower Likelihood and Amount of Recovery for Injuries Sustained as Part of Medical Tourism Compared to Health Care Provided at Home -- i.U.S. Patients Traveling Abroad for Care -- 1.Personal Jurisdiction -- 2.Forum Non Conveniens -- 3.Choice of Law, the Enforcement of Judgments, and Suing Abroad -- ii.Patients from Home Countries outside the United States -- iii.Liability for Facilitators -- C.Should It Matter? -- i.Thinking about Baselines and Counterfactuals -- D.Should Patients Be Permitted to Choose Deficient Med-Mal Recovery through Medical Tourism? -- E.Softer Regulatory Interventions Focused on Channeling? -- F.More Radical (but Less Likely) Interventions: Strict Liability for Facilitators and Victim's Compensation Funds -- II.Home-Country Physician Liability: Referral Liability, Abandonment Liability, and Liability for Follow-Up Care -- A.Liability for Actions or Omissions of Home-Country Physicians before the Patient Travels: Referral Liability -- B.Liability for Follow-Up Care and/or Abandonment -- C.Referral Fees -- III.Conclusion -- 4.Medical Tourism through Private Health Insurance -- I.The Private Health Insurance Medical Tourism Industry: Where It Is and Where It Is Going -- A.A Taxonomy of Potential Plan Types -- B.Existing Insurance Regulation Governing Medical Tourism -- C.A Tale of Two Regulatory Approaches: California and Texas -- D.Will the Affordable Care Act Change Things? -- II.Quality and Liability Revisited -- A.How Is Medical Tourism through Private Health Insurance Different? -- B.What Should Be Done? -- III.Regulating Plan Design -- IV.Conclusion -- 5.Medical Tourism through Public Health Insurance: The EU Model and Beyond -- I.A Brief Primer on Cross-Border Health Care in the European Union -- A.The EU System -- B.EU Health Care Systems -- II.EU Medical Tourism before 2011 -- A.Treaty Provisions and Secondary Legislation Relevant to Medical Tourism -- B.Emergency Care during a Temporary Visit to Another Member State -- C.Scheduled Care in Another Member State -- III.The Post-2011 Landscape: The New EU Directive -- A.Prior Authorization -- B.Reimbursement -- C.New Rights for Patients -- D.Cooperation -- E.Assessing the Directive -- IV.The Possibility of Publicly Financed Medical Tourism in the United States (and Elsewhere) -- V.Medical Retirement -- VI.Conclusion -- 6.Medical Tourism's Effects on the Destination Country: An Empirical and Ethical Examination -- I.The Empirical Question: What Effect Does Medical Tourism Have on Health Care Access in the Destination Country? -- A.Framing the Right Empirical Question -- B.Six Ways in Which Medical Tourism May Affect Health Care Access in the Destination Country: An Evaluation of the Existing Evidence -- II.What Duties Are Owed by Home Countries and Other International Institutions? -- A.Obligations of Home Countries and Intergovernmental Bodies -- i.Self-Interest -- ii.Cosmopolitan Theories (and Their Statist Critics) -- 1.Cosmopolitanism in Global Justice -- 2.Statist Theories -- B.Intermediate Theories (with a Focus on Causation) -- i.Cohen, Sabel, and Daniels -- ii.Pogge -- C.From Global Justice Theory to Real World Regulation -- III.Obligations of Destination Country Governments, Medical Tourists, and Others -- A.Destination Countries -- i.Moral Obligations -- ii.Regulatory Interventions -- B.Individual Medical Tourists -- IV.Conclusion -- 7.Transplant Tourism -- I.Understanding Transplant Tourism Markets: Of Sellers, Recipients, and Brokers -- A.The Sellers -- i.The Philippines -- ii.Pakistan -- iii.Bangladesh -- iv.India -- v.Other Data on Sellers -- B.Studies of Recipients -- i.UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA -- ii.University of Minnesota Medical Center or Hennepin County Medical Center, Minnesota, USA -- iii.St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada -- iv.British Columbia, Canada -- v.Other Data -- C.The Brokers -- II.The Bioethical Questions -- A.Corruption -- B.Crowding Out -- C.Coercion, Exploitation, Undue Inducement, and Justified Paternalism -- i.Is Transplant Tourism Coercive? -- ii.Is Transplant Tourism Exploitative in a Way that Should Prompt Legal Intervention? -- iii.Consent, Bounded Rationality, and Justified Paternalism -- III.Regulation -- A.Destination Country Enforcement -- B.Professional Self-Policing and International Documents -- C.Home Country Measures -- D.Improving the Supply and Allocation of Organs Locally -- IV.Conclusion -- 8.Medical Tourism and Ending Life: Travel for Assisted Suicide and Abortion -- I.The History and Current Practice of Traveling Abroad for Abortion and Assisted Suicide -- A.Abortion -- B.Assisted Suicide -- II.Can Home Countries Criminalize the Acts of Their Citizens Seeking Assisted Suicide or Abortion in Destination Countries Where Those Acts Are Legal? -- A.Bases for Prescriptive Jurisdiction -- B.Limitations on Jurisdiction to Prescribe -- III.The Normative Question: Should Home Countries Criminalize Their Citizens' Abortion and Assisting Suicide When Done in Destination Countries Where the Act Is Legal? -- A.A Prima Facie Argument for Extraterritorial Criminalization of Abortion and Assisted Suicide -- i.A Thought Experiment: Murder Island -- ii.A Political Theoretical Account -- iii.When Extraterritorial Criminalization Is Inappropriate -- B.Travel for Abortion -- i.Justifications Other than Harm to the Fetus -- ii.Victim Citizenship -- iii.Contestability of the Norm, Exit, and Exit-Light -- iv.Timing -- C.Travel for Assisted Suicide -- i.Concerns about Protecting Patients and Consent -- ii.Concerns about Changes in Attitudes: Corruption of the Profession, Slippery Slopes, and the Devaluation of Life -- 1.Extraterritoriality and Corruption Justifications Generally -- 2.Corruption and Assisted Suicide -- IV.Criminalizing Domestic Speech on Abortion and Assisted Suicide -- V.Conclusion -- 9.Medical Tourism and the Creation of Lift: A Study of Fertility Tourism -- I.What Is Known about Fertility Tourism? -- A.Types of Technology for Which Fertility Tourism Is Sought -- B.Data on Fertility Tourism -- i.Shenfield et al.'s Study of Europe -- ii.Hughes and Dejean's Study of U.S. and Canadian Clinics -- iii.Other Data -- II.Extraterritorial Criminalization: Should Home Countries Criminalize Circumvention Fertility Tourism? -- A.Child Welfare Concerns -- B.Corruption -- C.Exploitation and Undue Inducement -- III.Surrogacy and the Citizenship of Children Born Abroad -- A.How Home Countries Have Handled These Cases -- B.Regulatory Options -- IV.Conclusion -- 10.Medical Tourism for Experimental Therapies: An In-Depth Exploration of Stem Cell Therapy Tourism -- I.The Science of Stem Cell Therapies -- A.What Are Stem Cells? -- B.What Might Stem Cell Therapies Look Like? -- C.Current FDA Regulation of Stem Cell Therapies -- II.The Scope of Stem Cell Tourism: Lessons from the Available Data -- A.Studies of Clinics -- i.Regenberg et al.'s study of Stem Cell Therapy Websites -- ii.Lau et al.'s Website Study -- B.Studies of Patients -- i.A Patient Blog Study -- ii.A Study of Thirteen Stem Cell Tourists at Beike Clinics in China -- iii.Focus Groups of Potential Patients -- C.Adverse Outcome Reports -- III.The Legal and Bioethical Issues Raised by Stem Cell Tourism -- A.Developing a Responsible Innovation Pathway for Stem Cell Therapies, Self-Regulation, and Channeling -- i.Professional Self-Regulation and Its Limits -- ii.Criminalizing and Channeling -- IV.Stem Cell Tourism with Children as Patients -- A.Parents, the State, and the Best Interests of Children in Stem Cell Therapies -- i.Existing Canadian and U.S. Law -- ii.Where Should the Law Be Going? -- B.Doctors' Obligations -- V.Conclusion.
- The world may be getting smaller every day, but until very recently health care remained local. 'Patients with Passports' is the first comprehensive legal and ethical analysis of one part of the globalization of health care: medical tourism. The author examines the two sides of the industry: medical tourism for services legal in the patient's home country where patients travel to places such as India, Thailand and Mexico to reduce costs, avoid queues, or qualify for insurance incentives, and medical tourism for services illegal in the home country.
- 9780190205522 (ebook)
- Bibliography Note:
- Includes bibliographical references and index.
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