Thomas Aquinas's Quodlibetal questions / translated and introduced by Turner Nevitt and Brian Davies
- Oxford scholarship online
- Machine generated contents note: Question 1 The Knowledge of Spiritual Substances -- Article 1 Can a created intellect see the divine essence directly? -- Article 2 Can a created intellect think about more than one thing at a time? -- Article 3 Can an angelic intellect know about singulars? -- Article 4 Is the knowledge that Augustine calls the mind's "offspring" an accident or not? -- Question 2 The Enjoyment of Christ's Soul During the Passion -- Article 1 Did Christ's enjoyment extend to the essence of his soul? -- Question 3 The Plurality of Spiritual Substances -- Article 1 Is divine immeasurability incompatible with a plurality of divine persons? -- Article 2 Is angelic simplicity compatible with angels being composed of accident and subject? -- Question 4 The Sacrament of the Altar -- Article 1 Is the whole quantity of Christ's body contained under the outward appearances of bread? -- Article 2 Are the body of Christ and the bread both there in the same instant? -- Article 3 Can God make whiteness and other qualities exist without any quantity, as God makes quantity exist without a subject in the sacrament of the altar? -- Question 5 The Bodies of the Damned -- Article 1 Will the bodies of the damned be incorruptible? -- Article 2 Will they rise with their deformities? -- Article 3 Will they be punished in hell with bodily weeping and bodily worms? -- Question 6 The Senses of Sacred Scripture -- Article 1 Do the words of sacred scripture have other hidden spiritual senses in addition to their literal sense? -- Article 2 How many senses of sacred scripture are there? -- Article 3 Are these senses found in other writings? -- Question 7 Manual Labor -- Article 1 Is working with your hands a commandment? -- Article 2 Are people who keep their time free for spiritual works excused from this commandment? -- Question 1 The Divine Ideas -- Article 1 Is the number six (by reference to which all creatures are said to be perfected) the creator or a creature? -- Article 2 Do the ideas in God's mind apply to what they exemplify (viz. creatures) first by reason of their singularity or by reason of their specific nature? -- Question 2 The Human Soul -- Article 1 Does the soul receive the species by which it knows from things outside the soul? -- Article 2 How is charity or any other disposition known about by those who lack it? -- Question 3 The Human Body -- Article 1 Is food converted into true human nature? -- Question 4 Matters of Grace Related to Prelates -- Article 1 Is it always necessary to choose the best man to be a prelate or is it sufficient to choose a good one? -- Article 2 Should evil prelates be honored or not? -- Question 5 Matters of Grace Related to Everyone -- Article 1 Is praying for someone else as valuable as praying for yourself? -- Article 2 Are suffrages of greater benefit to the poor whose merit is greater than to the rich for whom they are specifically offered? -- Article 3 Does a simple vow dissolve a marriage contract? -- Question 6 Sin -- Article 1 Is it a sin for a man to go to church for the stipends, when he would not go otherwise, even if he initially accepted the prebend in order to serve God? -- Article 2 Is it a sin not to give to a poor beggar if one has a surplus? -- Article 3 When opinions differ about an action, as they do about having more than one prebend, is it a sin to follow the riskier opinion? -- Article 4 Is lying always a sin? -- Article 5 Does one sin as much as one intends to sin? -- Question 7 The Spiritual Punishment of the Damned -- Article 1 Do the damned see the glory of the saints, particularly after judgment day? -- Article 2 Do the damned want their own relatives to be damned? -- Question 8 The Bodily Punishment of the Damned -- Article 1 Will the damned only be punished with fire or also with water? -- Question 9 The Glory of the Blessed -- Article 1 Does the blessedness of the saints consist of thought before feeling, or the reverse? -- Article 2 Do the blessed see the humanity of Christ before his divinity? -- Question 1 Christ's Divine Nature -- Article 1 Can God make an actual infinity of things? -- Question 2 The Union of Christ's Human and Divine Natures -- Article 1 Is Christ only one subsisting individual? -- Article 2 Does Christ have only one existence? -- Article 3 Does Christ have only one sonship? -- Question 3 The Outward Appearances Containing Christ in the Sacrament of the Altar -- Article 1 Do those accidents exist there without a subject? -- Question 4 Angels -- Article 1 Are they composed of matter and form? -- Article 2 Can they actually have morning and evening knowledge simultaneously, i.e. can they know things in their own specific nature and in the Word simultaneously? -- Article 3 Can they merit the enjoyment of God and enjoy God by one and the same act of charity? -- Article 4 Do they move in an instant? -- Article 5 Can they affect or do anything to bodies here below? -- Question 5 Human Nature -- Article 1 Are vegetative and sensitive souls a result of creation? -- Article 2 Is commanding an act of will or of reason? -- Question 6 Grace -- Article 1 Is charity increased in essence? -- Question 7 Sin -- Article 1 Did Peter sin mortally by denying Christ? -- Article 2 Without a dispensation, is it a mortal sin to have more than one prebend without the responsibility to care for souls? -- Question 8 Glory -- Article 1 Are all the saints canonized by the Church in glory or are some of them in hell? -- Question 1 God -- Article 1 Does "oneness" indicate something affirmative about God, or merely a negation? -- Article 2 Will Christ come down to earth to judge? -- Article 3 Can the outward appearances of wine that remain in the sacrament after the consecration be mixed with another liquid? -- Question 2 Angels -- Article 1 Does an angel's duration have a before and after? -- Question 3 The Soul's Substance -- Article 1 Is the soul its powers? -- Article 2 Is the substance of the soul incorruptible? -- Question 4 The Soul's Activity -- Article 1 Does the intellective soul know everything it knows in the First Truth? -- Article 2 Does the soul perform acts with its sensitive powers while separated from the body? -- Question 5 Matters of Grace Related to Commandments and Counsels -- Article 1 If a son could only support his father with a dowry from a marriage contract, is he obligated to contract marriage to support his father? -- Article 2 Is a religious who has made a vow of obedience bound to obey his superior in all things, even matters of indifference? -- Article 3 Can a man who contracts marriage after a simple vow of chastity pay or exact the marriage debt? -- Question 6 Sins Opposed to Right Action -- Article 1 Is it a sin to honor rich people because of their wealth? -- Article 2 Is it a sin not to fend off a bad reputation? -- Article 3 Is it always a sin to wear expensive clothing? -- Question 7 Sins Opposed to Right Faith -- Article 1 Should we consort with heretics? -- Article 2 Should heretics who return to the Church be readmitted? -- Question 8 Glory -- Article 1 Can a created intellect see God's essence? -- Question 1 God's Infinity -- Article 1 Is being everywhere proper to God alone? -- Question 2 God's Knowledge -- Article 1 Does God know evil by means of good? -- Question 3 God's Predestination -- Article 1 Does predestination impose necessity? -- Question 4 Angels -- Article 1 Do they move in an instant? -- Question 5 The Human Soul -- Article 1 Are the sensitive and intellective soul one and the same substance? -- Question 6 The Human Body -- Article 1 Will the numerically same body rise again? -- Question 7 The Sacrament of Confirmation -- Article 1 Should only a bishop confer the sacrament of confirmation, or should someone else do so as well? -- Question 8 The Sacrament of the Eucharist -- Article 1 Can one attend the mass of a priest who is a fornicator without sinning mortally? -- Article 2 Is it a mortal sin to speak, eat, or associate with excommunicated people? -- Question 9 The Sacrament of Marriage -- Article 1 Does bewitchment impede marriage? -- Article 2 Does impotence impede marriage? -- Question 10 Fraternal Correction -- Article 1 Should you correct your brother or neighbor in public or in private? -- Article 2 If you know your neighbor has sinned, is it a mortal sin for you to report him to his superior immediately? -- Question 1 God's Divine Nature -- Article 1 Did blessed Benedict see the divine nature in his vision of the whole world? -- Question 2 God's Assumed Human Nature -- Article 1 Was Christ related to the Father and to his mother by one sonship or two? -- Article 2 Did Christ die on the cross? -- Question 3 Angels -- Article 1 Does an angel's essence depend upon a bodily place, or is an angel only in a place by virtue of its activity? -- Article 2 Can an angel move from place to place without passing through the space in between? -- Question 4 Human Nature -- Article 1 When the soul comes to exist in the body, are all the body's previous forms (both substantial and accidental) destroyed? -- Article 2 Can people without grace prepare themselves for grace? -- Article 3 Did human beings in the state of innocence love God more than everything else, including themselves? -- Question 5 Contrition -- Article 1 Should a contrite person prefer being in hell to sinning? -- Question 6 Confession -- Article 1 Is it sufficient for people to make a written confession or is a spoken confession required? -- Article 2 Do people have to confess at the first opportunity or can they wait until Lent? -- Article 3 Should a parish priest believe his parishioners who claim to have confessed to another priest, and give them the Eucharist, or not? -- Question 7 Relating to Clerics -- Article 1 If a cleric has prebends in two churches with different offices on the same day, is he bound to say each office? --
Contents note continued: Article 2 Should a man forgo the study of theology to pursue the salvation of souls, even if he has an aptitude for teaching others? -- Question 8 Relating to Religious -- Article 1 Is a religious bound to obey his superior by revealing a secret entrusted to him in confidence? -- Article 2 Is he bound to obey him by revealing his knowledge of a brother's secret fault? -- Question 9 Sin -- Article 1 Is sin some sort of entity? -- Article 2 Is swearing falsely by God a more serious sin than murder? -- Article 3 Is it a sin to violate a papal decree out of ignorance? -- Article 4 Is it a mortal sin for a monk to eat meat? -- Question 10 Glory -- Article 1 Is it naturally possible for a glorified body to be with another body in the exact same place? -- Article 2 Could that happen miraculously? -- Question 1 Christ -- Article 1 Was Christ numerically the same human being during the three days he was dead? -- Article 2 Would any of Christ's suffering have been enough to redeem the human race without his death? -- Question 2 The Composition of Angels -- Article 1 Is an angel substantially composed of essence and existence? -- Article 2 Is there a difference between an angelic subject and its nature? -- Question 3 The Time of the Movement of Angels -- Article 1 Does God move spiritual creatures through the same time that measures the movement of bodily things? -- Question 4 Virtues Related to Divine Matters -- Article 1 Would people have been bound to believe Christ if he had not performed visible miracles? -- Article 2 Should the children of Jews be baptized against their parents' will? -- Article 3 Can custom excuse people from having to pay tithes? -- Question 5 Virtues Related to Human Matters -- Article 1 Are children bound to obey their natural parents even in matters of indifference? -- Article 2 Is a seller bound to tell a buyer about a defect in the item sold? -- Question 6 Sins -- Article 1 Is it a sin to want to be a superior? -- Article 2 Is it a sin for a preacher to have his eye on temporal things? -- Question 7 Punishments for Sins -- Article 1 Can the separated soul be affected by bodily fire? -- Article 2 If two individuals deserve the same amount of punishment, can one remain in purgatory longer than the other? -- Question 8 Forgiveness of Sins -- Article 1 Is a sin against the Holy Spirit unforgiveable? -- Article 2 Does a vowed crusader who dies before going on crusade still receive the full forgiveness of sins? -- Question 1 God's Divine Nature -- Article 1 Can God make matter exist without form? -- Article 2 Can God make the same body to be located in two places at once? -- Question 2 God's Assumed Human Nature -- Article 1 Does Christ's soul know infinite things? -- Article 2 After his death, was Christ's eye called an eye equivocally or univocally? -- Article 3 After his resurrection, did Christ truly eat by incorporating food into himself? -- Question 3 Angels -- Article 1 Does an angel cause the rational soul? -- Article 2 Does an angel influence the human soul? -- Article 3 Does an evil angel (i.e., the devil) substantially inhabit human beings during each of their mortal sins? -- Question 4 Teachers of Sacred Scripture -- Article 1 Is it permissible for a man to seek his own license to teach theology? -- Article 2 When people hear different masters of theology with contrary opinions, are they excused from sin if they follow the false opinions of their masters? -- Question 5 Becoming a Religious -- Article 1 Is it permissible to lead young people to enter the religious life through the obligation of an oath or vow? -- Article 2 Can people obligated by such an oath or vow remain in the world without thereby sinning? -- Article 3 Is it permissible to lead sinners into the religious life? -- Article 4 Is it a sin to make a person swear an oath not to enter the religious life? -- Question 6 Being a Religious -- Article 1 Can religious (who ought not to have anything of their own either alone or together) give alms from the things that other people give them as alms? -- Article 2 If a religious knows that his father is in grave need, can he leave without his superior's permission in order to help his father? -- Article 3 Is the religious state more perfect than the state of parish priests and archdeacons? -- Question 7 Relating to the Laity -- Article 1 Can a woman who has contracted marriage in the Church after making a vow of continence unite in the flesh with her husband without sinning? -- Article 2 Are people allowed to keep things acquired by doing legitimate business with money made by usury? -- Question 8 The Soul's Substance -- Article 1 Is it composed of matter and form? -- Question 9 The Soul's Knowledge -- Article 1 Does the soul separated from the body know about any other separated soul? -- Article 2 Is it permissible to ask a dying person to disclose their state after death? -- Question 10 The Soul's Punishment -- Article 1 Can the soul be affected by bodily fire? -- Article 2 Do the damned in hell rejoice at the punishments of their enemies, who they see being punished along with them? -- Question 11 The Body -- Article 1 If the first human being had not sinned, would an equal number of males and females have been born? -- Question 12 Conscience -- Article 1 Can conscience be mistaken? -- Article 2 Does a mistaken conscience bind? -- Question 13 Penance -- Article 1 If a priest says to a penitent, "Whatever good you do will be for the forgiveness of your sins:" is that satisfaction sacramental? -- Article 2 If a man fails to say the divine office when he is obligated to do so, can another penance be imposed on him for such an omission, or should he be required to redo what he failed to do? -- Question 14 Purely Bodily Creatures -- Article 1 Is a rainbow in the clouds a sign that there will not be a flood? -- Article 2 Is it possible to prove demonstratively that the world is not eternal? -- Question 1 God -- Article 1 Is the one divine essence counted in addition to each one of the divine persons? -- Question 2 Angels -- Article 1 Do they do whatever they do by a command of their will? -- Article 2 Can they be on the top of the empyrean heaven (which was also asked about glorified bodies)? -- Question 3 The Sacrament of Baptism -- Article 1 If a boy is born in a waterless desert, and dies without being baptized, can he be saved by his mother's faith? -- Article 2 If a Christian man baptizes a Jewish woman, whom he had promised to marry if she were baptized, does he then consummate marriage if he knows her in the flesh afterward? -- Question 4 Faith -- Article 1 Is the certain adherence of a heretic or of a bad Catholic an act of the virtue of faith? -- Question 5 Relating to Religion or Worship -- Article 1 Are we allowed to celebrate the feast of our Lady's conception? -- Article 2 If a cleric at a school has a benefice with or without the responsibility to care for souls, is he bound to say the office of the dead? -- Article 3 Is a bishop bound to give a benefice to the better man? -- Article 4 Is a poor person bound to give tithes to a rich priest? -- Question 6 Obedience -- Article 1 Is it more meritorious to obey a religious superior or to do something at a brother's request? -- Question 7 Alms Given by Clerics -- Article 1 Is it a mortal sin for clerics not to generously give away their superfluous things as alms? -- Question 8 Alms Given on Behalf of the Dead -- Article 1 Do the dead suffer any loss if the alms required in their wills are delayed by their executors? -- Article 2 Are executors allowed to delay the distribution of such alms so that the belongings of the deceased can be sold at a greater price in the future? -- Question 9 Sins -- Article 1 Do baptized people transmit original sin to their offspring? -- Article 2 What comes first, turning away from God or turning toward a changeable good? -- Article 3 Which is worse, lying with words or with deeds? -- Question 10 Bodily Things -- Article 1 Can a man naturally or miraculously be a virgin and a father at the same time? -- Question 11 Purely Bodily Creatures -- Article 1 Does the empyrean heaven have an influence on other bodies? -- Question 1 God's Knowledge -- Article 1 Does God have multiple ideas? -- Question 2 God's Power -- Article 1 Does God have power? -- Article 2 Are there waters above the heavens? -- Question 3 The Extent of God's Power -- Article 1 Can God reduce something to nothing? -- Article 2 If something were reduced to nothing, could God bring the numerically same thing back into existence? -- Question 4 The Son's Divine Nature -- Article 1 Does the Father utter himself and creation by the same word? -- Article 2 Does his sonship distinguish the Son from the Holy Spirit? -- Question 5 The Son's Assumed Nature -- Article 1 Was the body of Christ nailed to the cross numerically the same as the one lying in the tomb? -- Question 6 Grace -- Article 1 Is God always making new grace? -- Question 7 The Sacraments of Grace -- Article 1 Is guilt forgiven by the absolution of a priest? -- Article 2 Can a man go on crusade if his wife cannot go with him and he is afraid that she will not remain continent? -- Question 8 Human Acts Related to Superiors and Prelates -- Article 1 Is a religious bound to obey a superior who commands him to reveal a brother's secret fault to him out of obedience? -- Article 2 Can the pope grant a dispensation for bigamy? -- Article 3 Are we bound to avoid excommunicated people if opinions on their excommunication differ even among experts, some of whom say that they are excommunicated and others that they are not? -- Article 4 Is a prelate of the Church allowed to give a benefice to his own suitable relative if a more suitable man occurs to him just as easily? -- Question 9 Human Acts Related to the Intellect --
Contents note continued: Article 1 Can a person desire to know magic without sinning? -- Article 2 Is a proposition that is once true, always true? -- Article 3 Should a master make more use of reason or of authority when settling theological questions? -- Question 10 The Act of Martyrdom -- Article 1 Can one offer oneself up to be martyred without perfect charity? -- Article 2 Is suffering martyrdom for Christ a commandment? -- Question 11 Evil Acts -- Article 1 Are impulses always sins? -- Article 2 Are they mortal sins for nonbelievers? -- Question 12 The Religious Life -- Article 1 Should children without experience keeping the commandments be received into the religious life, or obligated to enter it by taking an oath or vow, or encouraged to enter it by means of benefits? -- Article 2 Are the counsels aimed at the commandments? -- Question 1 God's Knowledge -- Article 1 Does God know the first instant the world could have been created? -- Article 2 Can people foreknown by God merit punishment? -- Question 2 God's Power -- Article 1 Can God restore a fallen virgin? -- Article 2 Can God sin, if God wants to? -- Question 3 God's Assumed Nature -- Article 1 Did all the blood that Christ shed during the passion return to his body at the resurrection? -- Article 2 Which is the greater sign of Christ's love for us: suffering for us, or giving us his body as food in the sacrament? -- Question 4 Angels -- Article 1 Is Lucifer the subject of the aevum? -- Question 5 Human Nature -- Article 1 If Adam had not sinned, would all the same people that are saved now still have been saved? -- Article 2 Is a mental word an intelligible species? -- Article 3 Are things done out of fear voluntary? -- Question 6 The Sacrament of the Eucharist -- Article 1 Is the form of bread annihilated? -- Article 2 Should a priest give an unconsecrated host to an unexposed sinner who asks him to do so? -- Question 7 The Sacrament of Penance -- Article 1 Should a superior remove a subordinate from his position because of something he heard from him in confession? -- Article 2 Does a man who dies while going on crusade die in a better state than a man who dies while coming back? -- Question 8 The Sacrament of Marriage -- Article 1 If a man promises to marry a woman using words in the future tense, and then knows her in the flesh, not meaning to consent to the marriage, but only wanting to have sexual intercourse with her, and then later contracts marriage with another woman using words in the present tense, is the second woman his [ect.] -- Article 2 If a man accuses his wife of committing adultery in secret, is the woman bound to confess her sin in court? -- Question 9 Relating to the Virtues -- Article 1 If a man is ambushed by thieves and promises them money for his release, which he borrows from a friend, is he bound to repay it? -- Article 2 Can one sin by fasting or keeping vigil too much? -- Question 10 Relating to the Commandments -- Article 1 Are the commandments prior to the counsels in the order of nature? -- Article 2 Are sins against the commandments of the second tablet more serious than sins against the commandments of the first tablet? -- Question 11 Relating to Prelates -- Article 1 Was blessed Matthew called immediately from tax collecting to the state of apostleship and perfection? -- Article 2 If a man is canonically elected to the episcopacy, is it better for him to accept his election or to decline it? -- Article 3 If a prelate gives an ecclesiastical benefice to one of his relatives in hopes of elevating and enriching his family, does he commit simony? -- Question 12 Relating to Teachers -- Article 1 Would a teacher who always preached or taught out of vainglory receive a little golden crown after repenting at death? -- Article 2 If a teacher's teaching draws people away from a greater good, is the teacher required to recant that teaching? -- Question 13 Relating to Religious -- Article 1 Do religious have to patiently tolerate the insults directed at them? -- Article 2 Is it permissible for a person to enter the religious life after swearing not to do so? -- Question 14 Relating to Clerics -- Article 1 Is it permissible for a cleric bound to say the canonical hours to say matins for the next day late at night? -- Question 1 God's Existence -- Article 1 Does God only have the one essential existence or a personal existence as well? -- Question 2 God's Power -- Article 1 Can God make contradictory things to be the case at the same time? -- Article 2 Can God make something actually infinite? -- Question 3 God's Predestination -- Article 1 Is predestination certain? -- Article 2 Are all things subject to fate? -- Question 4 Angels -- Article 1 Is an angel's existence an accident of it? -- Article 2 Can a demon know our human thoughts? -- Question 5 The Heavens -- Article 1 Are the heavens or the world eternal? -- Article 2 Do the heavens have souls? -- Question 6 The Human Soul -- Article 1 Does the soul complete the body alone or by means of corporeity? -- Article 2 Is the soul transmitted? -- Question 7 Human Knowledge -- Article 1 Does the human intellect know singular things? -- Question 8 Consequences of Human Knowledge -- Article 1 Does all the knowledge we acquire and possess remain after this life? -- Article 2 Do human words have the power to move brute animals- e.g., snakes? -- Question 9 The Sacrament of Baptism -- Article 1 Does water have the power to cleanse sin-i.e., does it cleanse sin by its own power, or by virtue of some concomitant power? -- Question 10 The Sacrament of Penance -- Article 1 Can a priest without the responsibility to care for souls give absolution in confession? -- Article 2 Is it ever permissible to reveal someone's confession? -- Article 3 Is it permissible to desire to be a bishop? -- Question 11 An Effect of the Sacraments -- Article 1 Do preparations for the sacraments (e.g., catechesis and the like) give rise to compaternity? -- Question 12 The Identity of the Church -- Article 1 Is the Church that exists now the same one that existed in the beginning at the time of the apostles? -- Question 13 The Intellectual Virtue of Truth -- Article 1 Is truth stronger than wine, kings, and women? -- Article 2 If one learned of a remedy while under oath not to share it, is one bound to keep the oath? -- Question 14 The Moral Virtues -- Article 1 Are the moral virtues connected? -- Question 15 Restitution -- Article 1 Can people expelled because of factions demand their goods back from those who remain in their city? -- Article 2 Does a person who acquires property by prescription in bad faith have to make restitution? -- Article 3 Does a person who uses up someone else's property have to make restitution? -- Question 16 The Office of Commentators on Sacred Scripture -- Article 1 Is everything the saintly doctors said inspired by the Holy Spirit? -- Question 17 The Office of Preachers -- Article 1 Can a man preach on his own authority-i.e., is he allowed to preach without a prelate's permission? -- Article 2 Should a man stop preaching when a secular ruler forbids him to preach? -- Article 3 Are preachers allowed to accept alms from usurers? -- Question 18 The Office of Confessors -- Article 1 Can a priest hear confessions on the popes authority without his own prelates permission? -- Question 19 The Office of Vicars -- Article 1 Can a vicar entrust his vicarious power to someone else? -- Question 20 Original Sin -- Article 1 Is it transmitted by the transmission of seed? -- Question 21 Actual Sins of Thought -- Article 1 Is it a mortal sin to consent to pleasure? -- Article 2 Is it a mortal sin to suspect others of wrongdoing? -- Question 22 Actual Sins of Action -- Article 1 Is it permissible to make use of lots, particularly by opening books at random? -- Article 2 Is it a sin not to give away one's superfluous things for God's sake? -- Article 3 Is it possible to be left with no permissible options? -- Question 23 Punishments -- Article 1 Should religious be expelled from the religious life for sinning if they are willing to change and be punished? -- Article 2 Can the soul separated from the body be naturally affected by bodily fire?.
- Thomas Aquinas was one of the most significant Christian thinkers of the middle ages and ranks among the greatest philosophers and theologians of all time. The 'Quodlibetal Questions' are his edited records of the public debates over which he presided at the University of Paris in the mid-thirteenth century. They contain Aquinas's treatment of hundreds of questions on a very wide range of philosophical and theological topics, all of which were chosen by his live audience. As such, Aquinas's questions provide a window onto the interests at the time, and contain some of Aquinas's fullest or only treatments of questions of interest both then and now.
- 9780190069568 (ebook)
- Audience Notes:
- Translated from the Latin.
Also issued in print: 2019.
- Bibliography Note:
- Includes bibliographical references and index.
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