Geocryology : characteristics and use of frozen ground and permafrost landforms / Stuart A. Harris, Department of Geography, University of Calgary, Calgary Alberta, Canada, Anatoli Brouchkov, Geocryology Department, Faculty of Geology, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia, Cheng Guodong, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, China
- Harris, Stuart A.
- Boca Raton, Florida : CRC Press/Balkema is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, 
- First edition.
- Physical Description:
- 1 online resource
- Cover; Half Title; Title Page; Copyright Page; Table of Contents; Preface; About the authors; Acknowledgements; Dedication; List of figures; List of tables; List of symbols; Part I Introduction and characteristics of permafrost; 1 Definition and description; 1.1 Introduction; 1.2 Additional terms originating in Russia; 1.3 History of permafrost research; 1.4 Measurement of ground temperature; 1.5 Conduction, convection and advection; 1.6 Thermal regimes in regions based on heat conduction; 1.7 Continentality index; 1.8 Moisture movement in the active layer during freezing and thawing.
1.9 Moisture conditions in permafrost ground1.10 Results of freezing moisture; 1.11 Strength of ice; 1.12 Cryosols, gelisols, and leptosols; 1.13 Fragipans; 1.14 Salinity in permafrost regions; 1.15 Organic matter; 1.16 Micro-organisms in permafrost; 1.16.1 Antarctic permafrost; 1.16.2 High-latitude permafrost; 1.16.3 High altitude permafrost in China; 1.16.4 Phenotypic traits; 1.16.5 Relation to climate change on the Tibetan plateau; 1.17 Gas and gas hydrates; 1.18 Thermokarst areas; 1.19 Offshore permafrost; 2 Cryogenic processes where temperatures dip below 0°C; 2.1 Introduction.
2.2 The nature of ice and water2.3 Effects of oil pollution on freezing; 2.4 Freezing and thawing of the active layer in permafrost in equilibrium with a stable climate; 2.5 Relation of clay mineralogy to the average position of the permafrost table; 2.6 Ground temperature envelopes in profiles affected by changes in mean annual ground surface temperature (MASGT); 2.7 Needle ice; 2.8 Frost heaving; 2.9 Densification and thaw settlement; 2.10 Cryostratigraphy, cryostructures, cryotextures and cryofacies; 2.11 Ground cracking; 2.12 Dilation cracking; 2.13 Frost susceptibility.
2.14 Cryoturbation, gravity processes and injection structures2.14.1 Cryoturbation; 2.14.2 Upward injection of sediments from below; 2.14.3 Load-casting; 2.15 Upheaving of objects; 2.16 Upturning of objects; 2.17 Sorting; 2.18 Weathering and frost comminution; 2.19 Karst in areas with permafrost; 2.20 Seawater density and salinity; 3 Factors affecting permafrost distribution; 3.1 Introduction; 3.2 Climatic factors; 3.2.1 Heat balance on the surface of the Earth and its effect on the climate; 3.2.2 Relationship between air and ground temperatures; 3.2.3 Thermal offset.
3.2.4 Relation to air masses3.2.5 Precipitation; 3.2.6 Latitude and longitude; 3.2.7 Topography and altitude; 3.2.8 Cold air drainage; 3.2.9 Buffering of temperatures against change in mountain ranges; 3.3 Terrain factors; 3.3.1 Vegetation; 3.3.2 Hydrology; 3.3.3 Lakes and water bodies; 3.3.4 Nature of the soil and rock; 3.3.5 Fire; 3.3.6 Glaciers; 3.3.7 The effects of Man; 4 Permafrost distribution; 4.1 Introduction; 4.2 Zonation of permafrost; 4.3 Permafrost mapping; 4.4 Examples of mapping units used; 4.5 Modeling permafrost distribution; 4.6 Advances in geophysical methods.
- "This book provides a general survey of Geocryology, which is the study of frozen ground called permafrost. Frozen ground is the product of cold climates as well as a variety of environmental factors. Its major characteristic is the accumulation of large quantities of ice which may exceed 90% by volume. Soil water changing to ice results in ground heaving, while thawing of this ice produces ground subsidence often accompanied by soil flowage. Permafrost is very susceptible to changes in weather and climate as well as to changes in the microenvironment. Cold weather produces contraction of the ground, resulting in cracking of the soil as well as breakup of concrete, rock, etc. Thus permafrost regions have unique landforms and processes not found in warmer lands. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 provides an introduction to the characteristics of permafrost. Four chapters deal with its definition and characteristics, the unique processes operating there, the factors affecting it, and its general distribution. Part 2 consists of seven chapters describing the characteristic landforms unique to these areas and the processes involved in their formation. Part 3 discusses the special problems encountered by engineers in construction projects including settlements, roads and railways, the oil and gas industry, mining, and the agricultural and forest industries. The three authors represent three countries and three language groups, and together have over 120 years of experience of working in permafrost areas throughout the world. The book contains over 300 illustrations and photographs, and includes an extensive bibliography in order to introduce the interested reader to the large current literature."--Provided by publisher.
- 9781351681612 (epub)
9781351681629 (electronic bk.)
1351681621 (electronic bk.)
- Bibliography Note:
- Includes bibliographical references and index.
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