Applied behavior analysis : principles and procedures for modifying behavior / Edward P. Sarafino
- Sarafino, Edward P., 1940-
- Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, 2012.
- Physical Description:
- xxiii, 472 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
- Machine generated contents note: ch. 1 What Is Applied Behavior Analysis? -- What Does Behavior Mean? -- External and Internal Behaviors -- What Is Not Behavior? -- How Behavior Develops -- How We Acquire and Change Behavior -- Respondent Conditioning -- Operant Conditioning -- Relating Respondent and Operant Conditioning -- Modeling -- Are Cognitive Processes Involved? -- Defining Applied Behavior Analysis -- Related Terms and Fields -- Characteristics of Applied Behavior Analysis -- How Behavior Analysis Developed -- Behaviorism: The Origin of Behavior Analysis -- Emergence and Growth of Applied Behavior Analysis -- Study and Review -- ch. 2 Identifying and Assessing Target Behaviors -- Goals and Target Behaviors -- Identifying and Defining Behavioral Goals -- Defining Operant Target Behaviors -- Defining Respondent Target Behaviors -- Prioritizing: Which Behavior to Address First -- How to Assess Target Behaviors -- Types of Data -- Strategies for Assessing Behavior -- Timing and Accuracy of Behavioral Assessments -- Tips on Identifying and Assessing Behavior -- Study and Review -- ch. 3 Using Data and Research Methods in Behavior Analysis -- Using Data to Measure Changes -- How We Use Data -- Organizing Data -- Graphing Data -- Using Graphs and Basic Research Methods -- Graphic Analysis -- Basic Research Designs -- Advanced Research Designs in Behavior Analysis -- Multiple-Baseline Designs -- Changing-Criterion and Alternating-Treatment Designs -- Evaluating the Resulting Changes in Behavior -- Dimensions of Evaluation -- Preparing a Report -- Tips on Using Graphs and Research Methods -- Study and Review -- ch. 4 Some Areas of Effective Application -- Parenting and Parent-Child Relationships -- Training in General Parenting Skills -- Correcting a Child's Existing Difficulties -- Education -- Enhancing Instructional Methods -- Improving Classroom Conduct -- Instruction for People With Developmental Disabilities -- Training People With Mental Retardation -- Training Children With Autism -- Health and Sports -- Health Psychology -- Sport Psychology -- Employment and Community Settings -- Self-Management: Changing One's Own Behavior -- Benefits of Self-Management -- Self-Management for Children With Developmental Disabilities -- Study and Review -- ch. 5 Reinforcement: Positive and Negative -- Defining Reinforcement -- Natural and Programmed Reinforcement -- Positive and Negative Reinforcement -- Unconditioned and Conditioned Reinforcement -- Types of Positive Reinforcers -- Tangible and Consumable Reinforcers -- Activity Reinforcers -- Social Reinforcers -- Feedback -- Tokens -- Factors That Influence the Effectiveness of Reinforcement -- Reward Value and Timing -- Motivation -- Negative Reinforcement in Escape and Avoidance -- Escape and Avoidance -- Problems Using Escape and Avoidance Conditioning -- Study and Review -- ch. 6 Extinction -- What Is Operant Extinction? -- Extinction for Positive Reinforcement -- Extinction for Negative Reinforcement -- The Process and Characteristics of Extinction -- Extinction Burst and Aggression -- Gradual Decline and Reappearance of the Behavior -- What Factors Affect Extinction Effectiveness? -- Knowing and Controlling All Relevant Reinforcers -- Past Pattern of Reinforcement -- Combining Extinction With Reinforcing Other Actions -- Instruction in the New Contingencies -- Study and Review -- ch. 7 Punishment -- Defining Punishment -- Natural and Programmed Punishment -- Positive and Negative Punishment -- Unconditioned and Conditioned Punishment -- Types of Punishing Events -- Physically Aversive Stimuli -- Reprimands -- Aversive Activities -- Time-Out -- Response Cost -- Advantages and Disadvantages in Using Punishment -- Advantages of Punishment -- Disadvantages of Punishment -- Study and Review -- ch. 8 Antecedents: Stimulus Control -- Setting the Occasion for Behavior -- Types of Antecedents -- Antecedent Functions -- Learning Antecedents -- Stimulus Discrimination -- Stimulus Generalization and Equivalence -- Concept Formation -- Stimulus Control -- What Is Stimulus Control? -- Promoting Stimulus Control -- Study and Review -- ch. 9 Motivation -- Defining Motivation -- Traditional Views -- A Behavior Analytic View -- Motivating Operations -- Establishing and Abolishing Operations for Reinforcement -- Establishing and Abolishing Operations for Punishment -- Unconditioned and Conditioned Motivating Operations -- Applying Motivating Operations -- Deprivation and Satiation -- Altering the Consequence Itself -- Chemical Methods -- Study and Review -- ch. 10 Shaping -- What Is Shaping? -- Successive Approximations -- Qualitative "Topographic" Shaping -- Quantitative Shaping -- Shaping in Real Life -- Shaping Everyday Behaviors -- Shaping Problem Behaviors -- Aspects of Shaping Methods -- Shaping "Steps" -- Shortcuts to Shaping -- Computer-Aided Shaping -- Tips on Using Shaping -- Study and Review -- ch. 11 Shortcut Stimulus Control Methods -- Prompting -- Response Prompts -- Stimulus Prompts -- Transferring Stimulus Control -- Response Prompt Fading -- Stimulus Prompt Fading -- Sizes of Fading Steps -- Increasing Assistance and Delay Approaches -- Tips on Using Prompting and Fading -- Study and Review -- ch. 12 Chaining Behaviors -- Forming and Analyzing Behavioral Chains -- What Is a Behavioral Chain? -- Doing a Task Analysis -- How to Teach Behavioral Chains -- Forward Chaining -- Backward Chaining -- Total-Task Presentation -- Is One Training Method Best? -- Tips on Chaining Behaviors -- Study and Review -- ch. 13 Functional Assessment and Program Design -- What Is a Functional Assessment? -- Functional Assessment: A Definition -- What Functions Can Behavior Serve? -- Performing a Functional Assessment -- Indirect Methods: Interviews and Questionnaires -- Direct Methods: Observation of the Behavior -- Experimental Methods: Functional Analysis -- From Functional Assessment to Program Design -- Interpreting Functional Assessment Data -- Using a Functional Assessment -- Strengths and Limitations of Functional Assessments -- Better and Early Treatment -- Feasibility Issues -- Methodology Issues -- Tips on Doing Functional Assessments -- Study and Review -- ch. 14 Managing Antecedents -- Identifying and Modifying Existing Antecedents -- Identifying Antecedents -- Ways to Alter the Antecedents -- Managing Discriminative Stimuli (Sds) -- Eliminating Existing SDs for a Problem Behavior -- Manipulating SDs for a Desirable Behavior -- Altering Motivating Operations (MOs) -- Reducing or Reversing MOs That Help Maintain a Problem Behavior -- Using MOs That Encourage an Alternative Behavior -- Changing Response Effort -- Increasing the Effort Needed to Make a Problem Behavior -- Decreasing the Effort Needed to Make an Alternative Behavior -- Altering Antecedent Chains -- Tips on Managing Antecedents -- Study and Review -- ch. 15 Using Basic Reinforcement Procedures to Increase a Behavior -- Identifying and Strengthening Positive Reinforcers -- Identifying Potential Reinforcers -- Enhancing Reinforcer Effectiveness -- How to Administer Positive Reinforcement -- Reduce Extraneous Counterproductive Reinforcers -- Who Will Administer Reinforcement? -- Use Easy Criteria Initially -- Immediately Reinforce Each Instance of the Target Behavior -- Gradually Thin and Delay Reinforcement -- Switch to Natural Reinforcers -- Using Negative Reinforcement -- When Negative Reinforcement Is Used -- How to Administer Negative Reinforcement -- Tips on Using Reinforcement -- Study and Review -- ch. 16 Using Advanced Reinforcement Procedures to Increase a Behavior -- Token Reinforcement Systems -- Tokens as Conditioned Reinforcers -- Pros and Cons of Using Token Reinforcers -- Setting Up and Administering Token Systems -- Lottery and Group Contingency Systems Lotteries -- Group Contingencies -- Using intermittent Positive Reinforcement -- Intermittent Reinforcement Schedules -- Effects of Intermittent Reinforcement -- Variations on Reinforcement Schedules -- Tips on Using Advanced Reinforcement Procedures -- Study and Review -- ch. 17 Using Extinction, Differential Reinforcement, and Habit Reversal to Decrease a Behavior -- Identifying and Controlling Reinforcement In Extinction -- Identifying a Behaviors Reinforcers -- Eliminating a Behaviors Reinforcers -- Problems in Applying Extinction -- Decreasing a Behavior With Differential Reinforcement -- Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible or Alternative Behavior -- Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior -- Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Behavior -- Using Habit Reversal to Decrease a Behavior -- Tips on Using Extinction, Differential Reinforcement, and Habit Reversal -- Study and Review -- ch. 18 Using Time-Out and Response-Cost Punishment to Decrease a Behavior -- Deciding Whether to Use Punishment -- Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Punishment -- When to Consider Using Punishment -- Negative Punishment: Time-Out and Response Cost -- Using Time-Out -- Using Response Cost -- Considerations in Using Negative Punishment -- Issues with Time-Out -- Issues with Response Cost -- Tips on Using Negative Punishment -- Study and Review -- ch. 19 Using Positive Punishment to Decrease a Behavior -- Positive Punishment and Its Problems -- Aversive Stimuli -- Aversive Activities -- Cautions and Ethics in Using Positive Punishment -- How to Use Positive Punishment Effectively -- Selecting the Best Punishers -- Administering Punishers -- Tips on Using Positive Punishment -- Study and Review -- ch. 20 Maximizing and Maintaining Operant Behavior Changes -- Combining Methods in Designing a Program -- Identifying Possible Methods and Deciding Which To Use -- Examples of Multidimensional Programs -- Checking and Adjusting the Program Design -- Assessing a Program's Progress -- Improving a Program -- Will the Improved Behavior Last? -- Regression of Behavior, and Why It Happens -- Examples of Relapses -- Ways to Maintain Behavior Changes -- and Contents note continued: Promoting Generalization of the Behavior -- Fading Prompts and Thinning Reinforcement -- Assuring Antecedents and Natural Reinforcement for the Behavior -- Booster Programs -- Tips on Maximizing and Maintaining Behavior Changes -- Study and Review -- ch. 21 Respondent Conditioning -- Respondent Conditioning in Everyday Life -- Conditioned Emotional Responses -- Physiological Reactions -- Substance Use and Abuse -- Cancer Treatment Reactions -- Learning Positive Reactions -- Factors and. Phenomena in Respondent Conditioning -- CS-US Timing and Intensity -- Relevance of the CS to the US -- Overshadowing, Blocking, and Latent Inhibition -- Second-Order Conditioning -- Discrimination, Generalization, and Extinction -- Preparing to Change a Respondent Behavior -- Assessing Respondent Behaviors -- Functional Assessment of Respondent Behaviors -- Study and Review -- ch. 22 Changing Respondent Behaviors -- Extinction and Counterconditioning -- Respondent Extinction -- Counterconditioning -- Relaxation Techniques -- Progressive Muscle Relaxation -- Other Relaxation Procedures -- Systematic Desensitization -- Developing a Stimulus Hierarchy -- The Systematic Desensitization Procedure -- How Effective Is Systematic Desensitization? -- Other Methods for Treating Fear -- In Vivo Exposure Therapies -- Modeling and Virtual Reality Exposure -- Tips on Changing Respondent Behaviors -- Study and Review -- ch. 23 Biofeedback -- What Is Biofeedback? -- Instrumentation and Measurement -- The Importance of Training and Developmental Level -- Certification in Biofeedback Treatment -- Biofeedback Applications -- Treating Hypertension -- Treating Seizure Disorders: Epilepsy -- Treating Chronic Headache -- Treating Anxiety -- Treating Asthma -- Treating Neuromuscular Disorders -- Study and Review -- ch. 24 Behavioral Contracts and Self-Management -- Using Behavioral Contracts -- Components of Behavioral Contracts -- Negotiating the Terms of a Behavioral Contract -- Settings for Applying Behavioral Contracts -- Benefits of Using Behavioral Contracts -- Using Self-Management Methods -- Goals in Self-Management -- Self-Monitoring and Behavioral Contracts -- Managing Antecedents in Self-Management -- Managing Consequences in Self-Management -- Respondent Methods in Self-Management -- Study and Review -- ch. 25 Token Economies -- The Token Economy Approach -- Usual Settings for Token Economies -- What's Needed to Start a Token Economy -- Setting Up and Implementing a Token Economy -- An Example Token Economy: Achievement Place -- The Purpose and Structure of Achievement Place -- A Day in One's Life at Achievement Place -- How Effective Is the Achievement Place Approach? -- Other Settings for Token Economies -- Token Economies in Classrooms -- Token Economies in Worksites -- Token Economies in Institutional Settings -- Benefits and Problems of Token Economies -- Study and Review -- ch. 26 Rule-Governed and Verbal Behavior -- Rule-Governed Behavior -- How Rules Govern Behavior -- When Are Rules Especially Useful? -- Verbal Behavior -- Types of Verbal Behavior -- Training Mands and Tacts -- Study and Review -- ch. 27 Dilemmas and Ethics -- Dilemmas in Efforts to Change Behavior -- Are the Behavior Change Goals Acceptable? -- Are the Behavior Change Methods Acceptable? -- Ethical and Legal Issues in Therapy and Research -- General Principles for Psychologists -- Competence and Training of Professionals in Applied Behavior Analysis -- Ethical Safeguards in Treatment Settings -- Ethical Safeguards in Research -- Study and Review -- ch. 28 Future Challenges for the Field and You -- Challenges for Behavior Analysis -- Improving the Field of Applied Behavior Analysis -- Integrating Therapy Approaches -- Enhancing the Image of Applied Behavior Analysis -- Careers and Training in Behavior Analysis -- Careers in Applied Behavior Analysis -- Training in Applied Behavior Analysis -- Study and Review.
- "Sarafino's goal in Principles and Procedures for Modifying Behavior is to create a clear and engaging instrument that describes ways to analyze one's own specific behaviors in terms of the factors that lead to and maintain them and ways to manage those factors to improve the behaviors. The text is based on research, theory, and experiences to explain and provide examples of the concepts and methods of self-management in a comprehensive text. It focuses on topics in applied behavior analysis, behavior modification, behavior therapy, and psychology of learning.Two general topics shaped this text: making the book relative to a variety of fields by describing applications in psychology, education, counseling, nursing, and physical therapy and different academic levels and preparation. Several important objectives guided the content and organization of the text which is designed to cover a large majority of tasks or concepts that the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (www.bacb.com) has identified as the field's essential content and should be mastered by all behavior analysts"--
- 9780470571521 (pbk. : acid free paper) and 0470571527 (pbk. : acid free paper)
- Bibliography Note:
- Includes bibliographical references and index.
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