Anatomy & physiology / Frederic H. Martini [and] Judi L. Nath ; Edwin F. Bartholomew, contributor ; William C. Ober, art coordinator and illustrator ; Claire W. Garrison, illustrator ; Kathleen Welch, clinical consultant ; Ralph T. Hutchings, biomedical photographer
- Machine generated contents note: ch. 1 An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology -- An Introduction to Studying the Human Body -- 1-1.Anatomy and physiology directly affect your life -- 1-2.Anatomy is structure, and physiology is function -- 1-3.Anatomy and physiology are closely integrated -- Anatomy -- Physiology -- 1-4.Levels of organization progress from molecules to a complete organism -- 1-5.Homeostasis is the tendency toward internal balance -- 1-6.Negative feedback opposes variations from normal, whereas positive feedback exaggerates them -- The Role of Negative Feedback in Homeostasis -- The Role of -- Positive Feedback in Homeostasis -- Systems Integration, Equilibrium, and Homeostasis -- 1-7.Anatomical terms describe body regions, anatomical positions and directions, and body sections -- Superficial Anatomy -- Sectional Anatomy -- 1-8.Body cavities protect internal organs and allow them to change shape -- The Thoracic Cavity -- The Abdominopelvic Cavity -- Review Questions -- ch. 2 The Chemical Level of Organization -- 2-1.Atoms are the basic particles of matter -- Atomic Structure -- Elements and Isotopes -- Atomic Weights -- Electrons and Energy -- 2-2.Chemical bonds are forces formed by atom interactions -- Ionic Bonds -- Covalent Bonds -- Hydrogen Bonds -- States of Matter -- Molecular Weights -- 2-3.Decomposition, synthesis, and exchange reactions are important chemical reactions in physiology -- Basic Energy Concepts -- Types of Chemical Reactions -- 2-4.Enzymes catalyze specific biochemical reactions by lowering a reaction's activation energy -- 2-5.Inorganic compounds usually lack carbon, and organic compounds always contain carbon -- 2-6.Physiological systems depend on water -- The Properties of Aqueous Solutions -- Colloids and Suspensions -- 2-7.Body fluid pH is vital for homeostasis -- 2-8.Acids, bases, and salts are inorganic compounds with important physiological roles -- Salts -- Buffers and pH Control -- 2-9.Carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio -- Monosaccharides -- Disaccharides and Polysaccharides -- 2-10.Lipids contain a carbon-to-hydrogen ratio of 1:2 -- Fatty Acids -- Eicosanoids -- Glycerides -- Steroids -- Phospholipids and Glycolipids -- 2-11.Proteins are formed from amino acids and contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen -- Protein Structure -- Protein Shape -- Enzyme Function -- Glycoproteins and Proteoglycans -- 2-12.DNA and RNA are nucleic acids -- Structure of Nucleic Acids -- RNA and DNA -- 2-13.ATP is a high-energy compound used by cells -- 2-14.Chemicals form functional units called cells -- Review Questions -- ch. 3 The Cellular Level of Organization -- An Introduction to Cells -- 3-1.The plasma membrane separates the cell from its surrounding environment and performs various functions -- Membrane Lipids -- Membrane Proteins -- Membrane -- Carbohydrates -- 3-2.Organelles within the cytoplasm perform particular functions -- The Cytosol -- The Organelles -- 3-3.The nucleus contains DNA and enzymes essential for controlling cellular activities -- Contents of the Nucleus -- Information Storage in the Nucleus -- 3-4.DNA controls protein synthesis, cell structure, and cell function -- The Role of Gene Activation in Protein Synthesis -- The Transcription of mRNA -- Translation -- How the Nucleus Controls Cell Structure and Function -- 3-5.Diffusion is a passive transport mechanism facilitating membrane passage -- Diffusion -- Diffusion across Plasma Membranes -- 3-6.Carrier-mediated and vesicular transport mechanisms facilitate membrane passage -- Carrier-Mediated Transport -- Vesicular Transport -- 3-7.The transmembrane potential results from the unequal distribution of ions across the plasma membrane -- 3-8.Stages of a cell's life cycle include interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis -- Interphase -- Mitosis -- Cytokinesis -- The Mitotic Rate and Energy Use -- 3-9.Several internal and external factors affect the cell life cycle -- 3-10.Tumors and cancers are characterized by abnormal cell growth and division -- Review Questions -- ch. 4 The Tissue Level of Organization -- An Introduction to the Tissue Level of Organization -- 4-1.The four tissue types are epithelial, connective, muscle, and neural -- 4-2.Epithelial tissue covers body surfaces, lines cavities and tubular structures, and serves essential functions -- Functions of Epithelial Tissue -- Specializations of Epithelial -- Cells -- Maintaining the Integrity of Epithelia -- 4-3.Cell shape and number of layers determine the classification of epithelia -- Classification of Epithelia -- Glandular Epithelia -- 4-4.Connective tissue provides a protective structural framework for other tissue types -- Classification of Connective Tissues -- Connective Tissue Proper -- 4-5.Cartilage and bone provide a strong supporting framework -- Cartilage -- Bone -- 4-6.Membranes are physical barriers of four types: mucous, serous, cutaneous, and synovial -- Mucous Membranes -- Serous Membranes -- The Cutaneous Membrane -- Synovial Membranes -- 4-7.Connective tissues create the internal framework of the body -- 4-8.The three types of muscle tissue arc skeletal, cardiac, and smooth -- Skeletal Muscle Tissue -- Cardiac Muscle Tissue -- Smooth Muscle Tissue -- 4-9.Neural tissue responds to stimuli and conducts electrical impulses throughout the body -- 4-10.The response to tissue injury involves inflammation and regeneration -- Inflammation -- Regeneration -- Review Questions -- ch. 5 The Integumentary System -- An Introduction to the Integumentary System -- 5-1.The epidermis is composed of strata (layers) with various functions -- Stratum Germinativum -- Stratum Spinosum -- Stratum Granulosum -- Stratum Lucidum -- Stratum Corneum -- 5-2.Factors influencing skin color are epidermal pigmentation and dermal circulation -- The Role of Epidermal Pigmentation -- The Role of Dermal Circulation -- 5-3.Sunlight causes epidermal cells to convert a steroid into vitamin DI -- 5-4.Epidermal growth factor has several effects on the epidermis and epithelia -- 5-5.The dermis is the tissue layer that supports the epidermis -- Dermal Strength and Elasticity -- Lines of Cleavage -- The Dermal Blood Supply -- Innervation of the Skin -- 5-6.The hypodermis is tissue beneath the dermis that connects it to underlying tissues -- 5-7.Hair is composed of keratinized dead cells that have been pushed to the surface -- Hair Production -- The Hair Growth Cycle -- Types of Hairs - Hair Color -- 5-8.Sebaceous glands and sweat glands arc exocrine glands found in the skin -- Sebaceous (Oil) Glands -- Sweat Glands -- Other Integumentary Glands -- Control of Glandular Secretions and the Homeostatic Role of the Integument -- 5-9.Nails are keratinized epidermal cells that protect the tips of fingers and toes -- 5-10.Several steps are involved in repairing the integument following an injury -- Review Questions -- ch. 6 Osseous Tissue and Bone Structure -- An Introduction to the Skeletal System -- 6-1.The skeletal system has live primary functions -- 6-2.Bones are classified according to shape and structure, and feature surface markings -- Bone Shapes -- Bone Markings (Surface Features) -- Bone Structure -- 6-3.Bone is composed of matrix anti several types of cells: osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoprogenitor cells, and osteoclasts -- The Matrix of Bone -- The Cells of Bone -- 6-4.Compact bone contains parallel osteons, and spongy bone contains trabeculae -- The Structure of Compact Bone -- The Structure of spongy Bone -- The Periosteum and Endosteum -- 6-5.Ossification and appositional growth are mechanisms of bone formation and enlargement -- Endochondral Ossificaton -- Intramembranous Ossification -- The Blood and Nerve Supplies to Bone -- 6-6.Bone growth and development depend on a balance between bone formation and bone resorption -- 6-7.Exercise, hormones, and nutrition affect bone development and the skeletal system -- The Effects of Exercise on Bone -- Hormonal and Nutritional Effects on bone -- 6-8.Calcium plays a critical role in bone physiology -- The Skeleton as a Calcium Reserve -- Hormones and Calcium Balance -- 6-9.A fracture is a crack or break in a bone -- 6-10.Osteopenia has a widespread effect on aging skeletal tissue -- Review Questions -- ch. 7 The Skeleton -- An Introduction to the Axial skeleton -- 7-1.The 80 bones of the longitudinal axis make up the axial skeleton -- 7-2.The skull is composed of 8 cranial bones and 14 facial bones -- Cranial Bones -- Facial Bones -- 7-3.Foramina and fissures of the skull serve as passageways for nerves and vessels -- 7-4.An orbital complex contains each eye, and the nasal complex encloses the nasal cavities -- The Orbital Complexes -- The Nasal Complex -- 7-5.Fontanelles are non-ossified areas between cranial bones that allow for brain growth -- 7-6.The vertebral column has four spinal curves -- Spinal Curvature -- Vertebral Anatomy -- 7-7.The five vertebral regions are the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal -- Cervical Vertebrae -- Thoracic Vertebrae -- Lumbar Vertebrae -- The Sacrum -- The Coccyx -- 7-8.The thoracic cage protects organs in the chest and provides sites for muscle attachment -- The Ribs -- The Sternum -- An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton -- 7-9.The pectoral girdle attaches to the upper limbs and consists of the clavicles and scapulae -- The Clavicles -- The Scapulae -- 7-10.The upper limbs are adapted for freedom of movement -- The Humerus -- The Ulna -- The Radius -- The Carpal Bones -- The metacarpal Bones and Phalanges -- 7-11.The pelvic girlde attaches to the lower limbs and consists of two coxal bones -- The Pelvic Girdle -- The Pelvis -- 7-12.The lower limbs are adapted for locomotion and support -- The Femur -- The Patella -- The Tibia -- The Fibula -- The Tarsal Bones -- The Metatarsal Bones and Phalanges -- 7-13.Sex differences and age account for individual skeletal variation -- Review Questions --
Contents note continued: Clinical Note: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome -- ch. 8 Articulations -- An Introduction to Articulations -- 8-1.Joints are categorized according to their range of motion or anatomical organization -- Synarthroses (Immovable Joints) -- Amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable Joints) -- Diarthroses (Freely Movable Joints) -- 8-2.Synovial joints are freely movable articulations (diarthroses) containing synovial fluid -- Articular Cartilages -- Synovial Fluid -- Accessory Structures -- Factors That Stabilize Synovial Joints -- 8-3.Anatomical and functional properties of synovial joints enable various skeletal movements -- Describing Dynamic Motion -- Types of Movements at Synovial Joints -- Types of Synovial Joints -- 8-4.Intervertebral discs and ligaments are structural components of intervertebral articulations -- Intervertebral Discs -- Intervertebral Ligaments -- Vertebral Movements -- 8-5.The shoulder is a ball-and-socket joint, and the elbow is a hinge joint -- The Shoulder Joint -- The Elbow Joint -- 8-6.The hip is a ball-and-socket joint, and the knee is a hinge joint -- The Hip Joint -- The Knee Joint -- Review Questions -- ch. 9 Muscle Tissue -- An Introduction to Muscle Tissue -- 9-1.Skeletal muscle performs six major functions -- 9-2.A skeletal muscle contains muscle tissue, connective tissues, blood vessels, and nerves -- Organization of Connective Tissues -- Blood Vessels and Nerves -- 9-3.Skeletal muscle fibers have distinctive features -- The Sarcolemma and Transverse Tubules -- Myofibrils -- The Sarcoplasmic Reticulum -- Sarcomeres -- Sliding Filaments and Muscle Contraction -- 9-4.Communication between the nervous system and skeletal muscles occurs at the neuromuscular junction -- The Control of Skeletal Muscle Activity -- Excitation-Contraction Coupling -- Relaxation -- 9-5.Sarcomere shortening and muscle fiber stimulation produce tension -- Tension Production by Muscle Fibers -- Tension Production by Skeletal Muscles -- Motor Units and Tension Production -- 9-6.ATP is the energy source for muscle contraction -- ATP and CP Reserves -- ATP Generation -- Energy Use and the Level of Muscular Activity -- Muscle Fatigue -- The Recovery Period -- Hormones and Muscle Metabolism -- 9-7.Muscle fiber type and physical conditioning determine muscle performance capabilities -- Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers -- Muscle Performance and the Distribution of Muscle Fibers -- Muscle Hypertrophy and Atrophy -- Physical Conditioning -- 9-8.Cardiac muscle tissue differs structurally and functionally from skeletal muscle tissue -- Structural Characteristics of Cardiac Muscle Tissue -- Functional Characteristics of Cardiac Muscle Tissue -- 9-9.Smooth muscle tissue differs structurally and functionally from skeletal muscle tissue -- Structural Characteristics of Smooth Muscle Tissue -- Functional Characteristics of Smooth Muscle Tissue -- Review Questions -- Clinical Note: Tetanus -- ch. 10 The Muscular System -- An Introduction to the Muscular System -- 10-1.Fascicle arrangement is correlated with muscle power and range of motion -- Parallel Muscles -- Convergent Muscles -- Pennate Muscles -- Circular Muscles -- 10-2.The three classes of levers increase muscle efficiency -- 10-3.Muscle origins are at the fixed end of muscles, whereas insertions are at the movable end of muscles -- Origins and Insertions -- Actions -- 10-4.Descriptive terms are used to name skeletal muscles -- Location in the Body -- Origin and Insertion -- Fascicle Organization -- Relative Position -- Structural Characteristics -- Action -- Axial and Appendicular Muscles -- 10-5.Axial muscles are muscles of the head and neck, vertebral column, trunk, and pelvic floor -- Muscles of the Head and Neck -- Muscles of the Vertebral Column -- Oblique and Rectus Muscles -- Muscles of the Pelvic Floor -- 10-6.Appendicular muscles are muscles of the shoulders, upper limbs, pelvic girdle, and lower limbs -- Muscles of the Shoulders and Upper Limbs -- Muscles of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs -- Review Questions -- ch. 11 Neural Tissue -- An Introduction to Neural Tissue -- 11-1.The nervous system has anatomical and functional divisions -- The Anatomical Divisions of the Nervous System -- The Functional Divisions of the Nervous System -- 11-2.Neurons are nerve cells specialized for intercellular communication -- The Structure of Neurons -- The Classification of Neurons -- 11-3.CNS and PNS neuroglia support and protect neurons -- Neuroglia of the Central Nervous System -- Neuroglia of the Peripheral Nervous System -- Neural Responses to Injuries -- 11-4.The transmembrane potential is the electrical potential of the cell's interior relative to its surroundings -- The Transmembrane Potential -- Changes in the Transmembrane Potential -- Graded Potentials -- Review Questions -- ch. 12 The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Spinal Reflexes -- An Introduction to the Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Spinal Reflexes -- 12-1.The brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system, and the cranial nerves and spinal nerves constitute the peripheral nervous system -- 12-2.The spinal cord is surrounded by three meninges and conveys sensory and motor information -- Gross Anatomy of the Spinal Cord -- Spinal Meninges -- 12-3.Gray matter is the region of integration and command initiation, and white matter carries information from place to place -- Organization of Gray Matter -- Organization of White Matter -- 12-4.Spinal nerves form plexuses that are named according to their level of emergence from the vertebral canal -- Anatomy of Spinal Nerves -- Peripheral Distribution of Spinal Nerves -- Nerve Plexuses -- 12-5.Neuronal pools are functional groups of interconnected neurons -- 12-6.Reflexes are rapid, automatic responses to stimuli -- The Reflex Arc -- Classification of Reflexes -- 12-7.Spinal reflexes vary in complexity -- Monosynaptic Reflexes -- Polysynaptic Reflexes -- 12-8.The brain can effect spinal cord-based reflexes -- Voluntary Movements and Reflex Motor Patterns -- Reinforcement and Inhibition -- Review Questions -- ch. 13 The Brain and Cranial Nerves -- An Introduction the Brain and Cranial Nerves -- 13-1.The brain has several principal structures, each with specific functions -- Major Brain Regions and Landmarks -- Embryology of the Brain -- Ventricles of the Brain -- 13-2.The brain is protected and supported by the cranial meninges, cerebrospinal fluid, and the blood-brain barrier -- 13-3.The medulla oblongata, which is continuous with the spinal cord, contains vital centers -- 13-4.The pons contains nuclei and tracts that carry or relay sensory and motor information -- 13-5.The cerebellum coordinates learned and reflexive patterns of muscular activity at the subconscious level -- 13-6.The mesencephalon regulates auditory and visual reflexes and controls alertness -- 13-7.The diencephalon integrates sensory information with motor output at the subconscious level -- The Thalamus -- The Hypothalamus -- 13-8.The limbic system is a group of tracts and nuclei with various functions -- 13-9.The cerebrum, the largest region of the brain, contains motor, sensory, and association areas -- The Cerebral Cortex -- The White Matter of the Cerebrum -- The Basal Nuclei -- Motor and Sensory Areas of the Cortex -- 13-10.Twelve pairs of cranial nerves emerge from the ventral surface of the brain -- I.The Olfactory Nerves -- II.The Optic Nerves -- III.The Oculomotor Nerves -- IV.The Trochlear Nerves -- V.The Trigemnal Nerves -- VI.The Abducens Nerves -- VII.The Facial Nerves -- VIII.The Vestibulocochlear Nerves -- IX.The Glossopharyngeal Nerves -- X.The Vagus Nerves -- XI.The Accessory Nerves -- XII.The Hypoglossal Nerves -- 13-11.Cranial reflexes involve sensory and motor fibers of cranial nerves -- Review Questions -- ch. 14 Neural Integration -- An Introduction to Sensory Pathways and the Somatic Nervous System -- 14-1.Sensory information from all parts of the body is routed to the somatosensory cortex -- 14-2.Sensory receptors connect our internal and external environments with the nervous system -- The Detection of Stimuli -- The Interpretation of Sensory Information -- Adaptation -- 14-3.General sensory receptors can be classified by the type of stimulus that excites them -- Nociceptors -- Thermreceptors -- Mechanoreceptors -- Chemoreceptors -- 14-4.Separate pathways carry somatic sensory and visceral sensory information -- Somatic Sensory Pathways -- Visceral Sensory Pathways -- 14-5.The somatic nervous system is an efferent division that controls skeletal muscles -- The Corticospinal Pathway -- The Medial and Lateral Pathways -- The Basal Nuclei and Cerebellum -- Levels of Processing and Motor Control -- An Introduction to the Autonomic Nervous System and Higher-Order Functions -- 14-6.The autonomic nervous system, composed of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions, is involved in the unconscious regulation of visceral functions -- Organization of the ANS -- Divisions of the ANS -- 14-7.The sympathetic division consists of preganglionic neurons and ganglionic neurons involved in using energy and increasing metabolic rate -- Organization and Anatomy of the Sympathetic Division -- Sympathetic Activation -- 14-8.Stimulation of sympathetic neurons leads to the release of various neurotransmitters -- Sympathetic Stimulation and the Release of NE and E -- Sympathetic Stimulation and the Release of ACh and NO -- Summary: The Sympathetic Division -- 14-9.The parasympathetic division consists of preganglionic neurons and ganglionic neurons involved in conserving energy and lowering metabolic rate -- Organization and Anatomy of the Parasympathetic Division -- Parasympathetic Activation -- 14-10.Stimulation of parasympathetic neurons leads to the release of the neurotransmitter ACh -- Neurotransmitter Release -- Membrane Receptors and Responses -- Summary: The Parasympathetic Division --
Contents note continued: 14-11.The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions interact, creating dual innervation -- Anatomy of Dual Innervation -- Autonomic Tone -- 14-12.Visceral reflexes play a role in the integration and control of autonomic functions -- Visceral Reflexes -- Higher Levels of Autonomic Control -- The Integration of SNS and ANS Activities -- 14-13.Higher-order functions include memory and states of consciousness -- Memory -- States of Consciousness -- 14-14.Neurotransmitters influence brain chemistry and behavior -- Review Questions -- Clinical Note: Alzheimer Disease -- ch. 15 The Special Senses -- An Introduction to the Special Senses -- 15-1.Olfaction, the sense of smell, involves olfactory receptors responding to chemical stimuli -- Olfactory Receptors -- Olfactory Pathways -- Olfactory Discrimination -- 15-2.Gustation, the sense of taste, involves taste receptors responding to chemical stimuli -- Taste Receptors -- Gustatory Pathways -- Gustatory Discrimination -- 15-3.Internal eye structures contribute to vision, while accessory eye structures provide protection -- Accessory Structures of the Eye -- The Eye -- 15-4.Photoreceptors respond to light and change it into electrical signals essential to visual physiology -- Visual Physiology -- The Visual Pathways -- 15-5.Equilibrium sensations originate within the inner ear, while hearing involves the detection and interpretation of sound waves -- Anatomy of the Ear -- Equilibrium -- Hearing -- Review Questions -- Clinical Notes: Diabetic Retinopathy -- Accommodation Problems -- ch. 16 The Endocrine System -- An Introduction to the Endocrine System -- 16-1.Homeostasis is preserved through intercellular communication -- 16-2.The endocrine system regulates physiological processes through the binding of hormones to receptors -- Classes of Hormones -- Secretion and Distribution of Hormones -- Mechanisms of Hormone Action -- Control of Endocrine Activity by Endocrine Reflexes -- 16-3.The bilobed pituitary gland is an endocrine organ that releases nine peptide hormones -- The Adenohypophysis -- The Neurohypophysis -- Summary: The Hormones of the Pituitary Gland -- 16-4.The thyroid gland lies inferior to the larynx and requires iodine for hormone synthesis -- Thyroid Follicles and Thyroid Hormones -- Functions of Thyroid Hormones -- The C Cells of the Thyroid Gland and Calcitonin -- 16-5.The four parathyroid glands, embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland, secrete parathyroid hormone to elevate plasma Ca2+ -- 16-6.The suprarenal glands, consisting of a cortex and medulla, cap the superior borders of the kidneys and secrete several hormones -- The Suprarenal Cortex -- The Suprarenal Medulla -- 16-7.The pineal gland, attached to the third ventricle, secrets melatonin -- 16-8.The pancreas, located within the abdominopelvic cavity, is both an exocrine organ and endocrine gland -- The Pancreatic Islets -- Insulin -- Glucagon -- 16-9.Many organs have secondary endocrine functions -- The Intestines -- The Kidneys -- The Heart -- The Thymus -- The Gonads -- Adipose Tissue -- 16-10.Hormones interact to produce coordinated physiological responses -- Role of Hormones in Growth -- The Hormonal Responses to Stress -- The Effects of Hormones on Behavior -- Review Questions -- Clinical Notes: Diabetes Mellitus -- ch. 17 Blood -- An Introduction to the Cardiovascular System -- 17-1.Blood has several important functions and unique physical characteristics -- 17-2.Plasma, the fluid portion of blood, contains significant quantities of plasma proteins -- The Composition of Plasma -- Plasma Proteins -- 17-3.Red blood cells, formed by erythropoiesis, contain hemoglobin that can be recycled -- Abundance of RBCs -- Structure of RBCs -- Hemoglobin -- RBC Formation and Turnover -- RBC Production -- 17-4.The ABO blood types of Rh system are based on antigen-antibody responses -- Cross-Reactions in Transfusions -- Testing for Transfusion Compatibility -- 17-5.The various types of white blood cells contribute to the body's defenses -- WBC Circulation and Movement -- Types of WBCs -- The Differential Count and Changes in WBC Profiles -- WBC Production -- 17-6.Platelets, disc-shaped structures formed from megakaryocytes, function in the clotting process -- Platelet Functions -- Platelet Production -- 17-7.Hemostasis involves vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, and blood coagulation -- The Vascular Phase -- The Platelet Phase -- The Coagulation Phase -- Fibrinolysis -- Review Questions -- Clinical Note: Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn -- ch. 18 The Heart -- An Introduction to the Cardiovascular System -- 18-1.The heart is a four-chambered organ, supplied by the coronary circulation, that pumps oxygen-poor blood to the lungs and oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body -- The Pericardium -- Superficial Anatomy of the Heart -- The Heart Wall -- Internal anatomy and Organization -- Connective Tissues and the Cardiac Skeleton -- The Blood Supply to the Heart -- 18-2.The conducting system distributes electrical impulses through the heart, and an electrocardiogram records the associated electrical events -- Cardiac Physiology -- The Conducting System -- The Electrocardiogram -- Contractile Cells -- 18-3.Events during a complete heartbeat constitute a cardiac cycle -- Phases of the Cardiac Cycle -- Pressure and Volume Changes in the Cardiac Cycle -- Heart Sounds -- 18-4.Cardiodynamics examines the factors that affect cardiac output -- Overview: Factors Affecting Cardiac Output -- Factors Affecting the Heart Rate -- Factors Affecting the Stroke Volume -- Summary: The Control of Cardiac Output -- The Heart and the Cardiovascular System -- Review Questions -- Clinical Notes: -- Coronary Artery Disease -- Myocardial Infarction -- Abnormal Conditions Affecting Cardiac Output -- ch. 19 Blood Vessels and Circulation -- An Introduction to Blood Vessels and Circulation -- 19-1.Arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins differ in size, structure, and functional properties -- The Structure of Vessel Walls -- Differences between Arteries and Veins -- Arteries -- Capillaries -- Veins -- The Distribution of Blood -- 19-2.Pressure and resistance determine blood flow and affect rates of capillary exchange -- Pressure -- Total Peripheral Resistance -- An Overview of Cardiovascular Pressures -- Capillary Pressures and Capillary Exchange -- 19-3.Cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms involve autoregulation, neural mechanisms, and endocrine responses -- Autoregulation of Blood Flow within Tissues -- Neural Mechanisms -- Hormones and Cardiovascular Regulation -- 19-4.The cardiovascular system adapts to physiological stress and maintains a special vascular supply to the brain, heart, and lungs -- The Cardiovascular Response to Exercise -- The Cardiovascular Response to Hemorrhaging -- Vascular Supply to Special Regions -- 19-5.The pulmonary and systemic circuits of the cardiovascular system exhibit three general functional patterns -- 19-6.In the pulmonary circuit, deoxygenated blood enters the lungs in arteries, and oxygenated blood leaves the lungs via veins -- 19-7.The systemic circuit carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to tissues and organs other than the pulmonary exchange surfaces, and returns deoxygenated blood to the right atrium -- Systemic Arteries -- Systemic Veins -- 19-8.Modifications of fetal and maternal cardiovascular systems promote the exchange of materials, and independence is achieved at birth -- Placental Blood Supply -- Fetal Circulation in the Heart and Great Vessels -- Cardiovascular Changes at Birth -- Review Questions -- Clinical Notes: -- Arteriosclerosis -- Edema -- ch. 20 The Lymphoid System and Immunity -- An Introduction to the Lymphoid System and Immunity -- 20-1.Anatomical barriers and defense mechanisms constitute nonspecific defense, and lymphocytes provide specific defense -- 20-2.Lymphatic vessels, lymphocytes, lymphoid tissues, and lymphoid organs function in body defenses -- Functions of the Lymphoid System -- Lymphatic Vessels -- Lymphocytes -- Lymphoid Tissues -- Lymphoid Organs -- The Lymphoid System and Body Defenses -- 20-3.Nonspecific defenses do not discriminate between potential threats and respond the same regardless of the invader -- Physical Barriers -- Phagocytes -- Immunological Surveillance -- Interferons -- Complement -- Inflammation -- Fever -- 20-4.Specific defenses (immunity) respond to individual threats and are either cell-mediated or antibody-mediated -- Forms of Immunity -- Properties of Immunity -- An Introduction to the Immune Response -- 20-5.T cells play a role in the initiation, maintenance, and control of the immune response -- Antigen Presentation -- Antigen Recognition -- Activation of CD8 T Cells -- Activation of CD4 T Cells -- 20-6.B cells respond to antigens by producing specific antibodies -- B Cell Sensitization and Activation -- Antibody Structure -- Primary and Secondary Responses to Antigen Exposure -- Summary of the Immune Response -- 20-7.Cells secrete a variety of chemical messengers that mediate body defenses -- Interleukins -- Interferons -- Tumor Necrosis Factors -- Chemicals Regulating Phagocytic Activities -- Colony-Stimulating Factors -- Miscellaneous Cytokines -- 20-8.Immunological competence enables a normal immune response; abnormal responses result in immune disorders -- The Development of Immunological Competence -- Immune Disorders -- Stress and the Immune Response -- Review Questions -- Clinical Notes: -- Cancer and the Lymphoid System -- AIDS -- ch. 21 The Respiratory System -- An Introduction to the Respiratory System -- 21-1.The respiratory System, Organized into an upper respiratory system and a lower respiratory system, has several basic functions -- Functions of the Respiratory System -- Organization of the Respiratory System --
Contents note continued: 21-2.Located outside the thoracic cavity, the upper respiratory system consists of the nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and pharynx -- The Nose, Nasal Cavity, and Paranasal Sinuses -- The Pharynx -- 21-3.Composed of cartilages, ligaments, and muscles, the larynx produces sound -- Cartilages and Ligaments of the Larynx -- Sound Production -- The Laryngeal Musculature -- 21-4.The trachea and primary bronchi convey air to and from the lungs -- The Trachea -- The Primary Bronchi -- 21-5.Enclosed by a pleural membrane, the lungs are paired organs containing alveoli, which permit gaseous exchange -- Lobes and Surfaces of the Lungs -- The Bronchi -- The Bronchioles -- Alveolar Ducts and Alveoli -- The Blood Supply to the Lungs -- The Pleural Cavities and Pleural Membranes -- 21-6.External respiration and internal respiration allow gaseous exchange within the body -- 21-7.Pulmonary ventilation-the exchange of air between the atmosphere and the lungs-involves pressure changes, muscle movement, and respiratory rates and volumes -- The Movement of Air -- Pressure Changes during Inhalation and Exhalation -- The Mechanics of Breathing -- Respiratory Rates and Volumes -- 21-8.Gas exchange depends on the partial pressures of gases and the diffusion of molecules -- The Gas Laws -- Diffusion and Respiratory Function -- 21-9.Most oxygen is transported bound to hemoglobin; and carbon dioxide is transported in three ways: as carbonic acid, bound to hemoglobin, or dissolved in plasma -- Oxygen Transport -- Carbon Dioxide Transport -- Summary: Gas Transport -- 21-10.Neurons in the medulla oblongata and pons, along with respiratory reflexes, control respiration -- Local Regulation of Gas Transport and Alveolar Function -- The Respiratory Centers of the Brain -- Respiratory Reflexes -- Voluntary Control of Respiration -- Changes in the Respiratory System at Birth -- ch. 22 The Digestive System -- An Introduction to the Digestive System -- 22-1.The digestive system, consisting or the digestive tract and accessory organs, has overlapping food utilization functions -- Functions of the Digestive System -- The Digestive Organs and the Peritoneum -- Histological Organization of the Digestive Tract -- The Movement of Digestive Materials -- Control of digestive Functions -- 22-2.The oral cavity contains the tongue, salivary glands, and teeth, each with specific functions -- The Tongue -- Salivary Glands -- The Teeth -- 22-3.The pharynx is a passageway between the oral cavity and esophagus -- 22-4.The esophagus is a muscular tube that transports solids and liquids from the pharynx to the stomach -- Histology of the Esophagus -- Swallowing -- 22-5.The stomach is a J-shaped organ that receives the bolus from the esophagus and aids in chemical and mechanical digestion -- Anatomy of the Stomach -- Regulation of Gastric Activity -- Digestion and Absorption in the Stomach -- 22-6.The small intestine digests and absorbs nutrients, and associated glandular organs assist with the digestive process -- The Small Intestine -- Histology of the Small Intestine -- Intestinal Secretions -- Intestinal Movements -- The Pancreas -- The Liver -- The Gallbaldder -- The Coordination of Secretion and Absorption -- 22-7.The large intestine is divided into three parts with regional specialization -- The Cecum -- The Colon -- The Rectum -- Histology of the Large Intestine -- Physiology of the Large Intestine -- 22-8.Digestion is the mechanical and chemical alteration of food that allows the absorption and use of nutrients -- The Processing and Absorption of Nutrients -- Carbohydrate -- Digestion and Absorption -- Lipid Digestion and Absorption -- Protein Digestion and Absorption -- Water Absorption -- Ion Absorption -- Review Questions -- ch. 23 Metabolism and Energetics -- An Introduction to Metabolism and Energetics -- 23-1.Metabolism refers to all the chemical reactions that occur in the body -- 23-2.Carbohydrate metabolism involves glycolysis, ATP production, and gluconeogenesis -- Glycolysis -- Mitochondrial ATP Production -- Energy Yield of Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration -- Gluconeogenesis -- 23-3.Lipid metabolism involves lipolysis, beta-oxidation, and the transport and distribution of lipids as free fatty acids and lipoproteins -- Lipid Catabolism -- Lipid Synthesis -- Lipid Transport and Distribution -- 23-4.Protein catabolism involves transamination and deamination, whereas protein synthesis involves amination and transamination -- Amino Acid Catabolism -- Protein Synthesis -- 23-5.The body experiences two patterns of metabolic activity: the absorptive and postabsorptive states -- 23-6.Adequate nutrition is necessary to prevent deficiency disorders and ensure physiological functioning -- Food Groups and the MyPyramid Plan -- Nitrogen Balance -- Minerals -- Vitamins -- Diet and Disease -- 23-7.Metabolic rate is the average caloric expenditure, and thermoregulation involves balancing heat-producing and heat-losing mechanisms -- Energy Gains and Losses -- Thermoregulation -- Review Questions -- Clinical Note: Dietary Fats and Cholesterol -- ch. 24 The Urinary System -- An Introduction to the Urinary System -- 24-1.Consisting of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra, the urinary system has three primary functions -- 24-2.Kidneys are highly vascular structures containing functional units called nephrons, which perform filtration, reabsorption, and secretion -- Sectional Anatomy of the Kidneys -- Blood Supply and Innervation of the Kidneys -- The Nephron -- 24-3.Different segments of the nephron form urine by filtration, reabsorption, and secretion -- Basic Processes of Urine Formation -- An Overview of Renal Function -- 24-4.Hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures influence glomerular filtration pressure, which in turn affects the glomerular filtration rate -- Filtration Pressures -- The Glomerular Filtration Rate -- Control of the GFR -- 24-5.Countercurrent multiplication and the influence of antidiuretic hormone and aldosterone affect reabsorption and secretion -- Reabsorption and Secretion at the PCT -- The Nephron Loop and Countercurrent Multiplication -- Reabsorption and Secretion at the DCT -- Reabsorption and Secretion along the Collecting System -- The Control of Urine Volume and Osmotic -- Concentration -- The Function of the Vasa Recta -- The Composition of Normal Urine -- Summary: Renal Function -- 24-6.Urine is transported via the ureters, stored in the bladder, and eliminated through the urethra, aided by the micturition reflex -- The Ureters -- The Urethra -- The Micturition Reflex and Urination -- Review Questions -- Clinical Note: Renal Failure and Kidney Transplantation -- ch. 25 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance -- An Introduction to Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance -- 25-1.Fluid balance, electrolyte balance, and acid[–]base balance are interrelated and essential to homeostasis -- 25-2.The ECF and ICF make up the fluid compartments, which also contain cations and anions -- The ECF and the ICE -- Basic Concepts in the Regulation of Fluids and Electrolytes -- An Overview of the Primary Regulatory Hormones -- The Interplay between Fluid Balance and Electrolyte Balance -- 25-3.Hydrostatic and osmotic pressures regulate the movement of water and electrolytes to maintain fluid balance -- Fluid Movement within the ECF -- Fluid Gains and Losses -- Fluid Shifts -- 25-4.Balance of the electrolytes sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride is essential for maintaining homeostasis -- Sodium Balance -- Potassium Balance -- Balance of Other Electrolytes -- 25-5.In acid-base balance, regulation of hydrogen ions in body fluids involves buffer systems and renal and respiratory compensatory mechanisms -- The Importance of pH Control -- Types of Acids in the Body -- Mechanisms of pH Control -- Maintenance of Acid-Base Balance -- 25-6.Respiratory acidosis/alkalosis and metabolic acidosis/alkalosis are classes of acid-base balance disturbances -- Respiratory Acidosis -- Respiratory Alkalosis -- Metabolic Acidosis -- Metabolic Alkalosis -- The Detection of Acidosis and Alkalosis -- Review Questions -- Clinical Note: Athletes and Salt Loss -- ch. 26 The Reproductive System -- An Introduction to the Reproductive System -- 26-1.Basic reproductive system structures are gonads, ducts, accessory glands and organs, and external genitalia -- 26-2.Spermatogenesis occurs in the testes, and hormones from the hypothalamus, adenohypophysis, and testes control male reproductive functions -- The Testes -- Spermatogenseis -- The Anatomy of a Spermatozoon -- The Male Reproductive Tract -- The Accessory Glands -- Semen -- The External Genitalia -- Hormones and Male Reproductive Function -- 26-3.Oogenesis occurs in the ovaries, and hormones from the pituitary gland and gonads control female reproductive functions -- The Ovaries -- The Uterine Tubes -- The Uterus -- The Vagina -- The External Genitalia -- The Mammary Glands -- Hormones and the Female Reproductive Cycle -- Summary: Hormonal Regulation of the Female Reproductive Cycle -- 26-4.The autonomic nervous system, influences male and female sexual function -- Male Sexual Function -- Female Sexual Function -- Review Questions -- Clinical Notes: -- Prostatic Hypertrophy and Prostate Cancer -- Breast Cancer -- Eponyms in Common Use -- Key Terms.
- 9780321597137 (hbk. : student ed.)
0321597133 (hbk. : student ed.)
9780321597205 (professional ed.)
0321597206 (professional ed.)
- Bibliography Note:
- Includes bibliographical references and index.
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