Lombardy is the most prosperous region in Italy. Thanks to its economic diversity, it has demonstrated unusual resilience in the face of the global recession. But the region faces long-term challenges emerging from an ageing population, immigration and slow adaptation of practices and technologies that could enhance productivity. How can Lombardy face stronger global competition? How can it attract and retain talent? How can Lombardy raise educational attainment and unleash the potential of its large university sector for local and regional development?