The cerebral circulation [electronic resource] / Marilyn J. Cipolla
- Cipolla, Marilyn J.
- San Rafael, Calif. (1537 Fourth Street, San Rafael, CA 94901 USA) : Morgan & Claypool, 
- Copyright Date:
- Physical Description:
- 1 electronic text (x, 59a pages : illustrations) : digital file
- Restrictions on Access:
- Abstract freely available; full-text restricted to subscribers or individual document purchasers.
- 1. Introduction -- 2. Anatomy and ultrastructure -- The arteries -- Cerebral vascular architecture -- The veins -- Structure of cerebral vessels -- The microcirculation and the "neurovascular unit" -- Pericytes -- Collaterals --, 3. Perivascular innervation -- Roles of extrinsic innervation --, 4. Regulation of cerebrovascular tone -- Myogenic response -- Mechanisms of myogenic response initiation -- Mechanisms of myogenic reactivity -- Feedback -- Effect of disease states on myogenic tone and reactivity -- Endothelial regulation of tone -- Nitric oxide -- Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor -- Prostacyclin --, 5. Control of cerebral blood flow -- Cerebral hemodynamics -- Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow -- Segmental vascular resistance -- Neural-astrocyte regulation -- Effect of oxygen -- Effect of carbon dioxide --, and 6. Barriers of the CNS -- The blood-CSF barrier -- The blood-brain barrier -- Ultrastructure of the BBB -- Tight junctions -- Adherens junctions -- Regulation of paracellular permeability -- BBB transporters -- Transcellular transport -- Water homeostasis in the brain -- Hydraulic conductivity -- Role of astrocytes in BBB function -- Cerebral edema formation -- Cytotoxic vs. vasogenic edema -- Summary -- References.
- This presentation describes structural and functional properties of the cerebral circulation that are unique to the brain, an organ with high metabolic demands, and the need for tight water and ion homeostasis. Autoregulation is pronounced in the brain, with myogenic, metabolic, and neurogenic mechanisms contributing to maintain relatively constant blood flow during both increases and decreases in pressure. In addition, unlike peripheral organs where the majority of vascular resistance resides in small arteries and arterioles, large extracranial and intracranial arteries contribute significantly to vascular resistance in the brain. The prominent role of large arteries in cerebrovascular resistance helps maintain blood flow and protect downstream vessels during changes in perfusion pressure. The cerebral endothelium is also unique in that its barrier properties are in some way more like epithelium than endothelium in the periphery. The cerebral endothelium, known as the blood-brain barrier, has specialized tight junctions that do not allow ions to pass freely and has very low hydraulic conductivity and transcellular transport. This special configuration modifies Starling's forces in the brain such that ions retained in the vascular lumen oppose water movement due to hydrostatic pressure. Tight water regulation is necessary in the brain because it has limited capacity for expansion within the skull. Increased intracranial pressure due to vasogenic edema can cause severe neurologic complications and death. This chapter will review these special features of the cerebral circulation and how they contribute to the physiology of the brain.
- 9781615040131 (electronic bk.)
- Part of: Colloquium digital library of life sciences.
Title from PDF t.p. (viewed on March 15, 2010).
Series from website.
AVAILABLE ONLINE TO AUTHORIZED PSU USERS.
- Bibliography Note:
- Includes bibliographical references (pages 45-59a).
- Other Forms:
- Also available in print.
- Technical Details:
- Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System requirements: Adobe Acrobat reader.
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